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Andhra Pradesh, one of the 28 states of 21st-century India, begins in the Vedic period. It is a country, which takes pride in its rich historical and cultural heritage. A peek into the History of Andhra Pradesh can give an idea of the glorious past the state has witnessed.
Andhra Pradesh – History
Historians believe that the origin of the people of Andhra Pradesh were Aryans. They migrated to the south of Vindhyas and there they mixed up with other races. Andhra Pradesh was an important Buddhist center during the time of Emperor Ashoka. Several places in the state still bears the traces of the Buddhist culture and influence.
The earliest dynasty that ruled in Andhra Pradesh was called as Satavahana dynasty. This was during the second century B.C and they were also known as the Andhras. Amravati, on the banks of river Krishna was their capital. They promoted national and international trade and were great followers of Buddhism. After the end of the Satavahana, the state was ruled by the Pallavas, the Chalukyas, the Cholas and the Kakaityas respectively.
The Kakatiya dynasty was uprooted in the year 1323, following the capture of their ruler by Tughlak Sultan of Delhi. After the end of the Kakatiya dynasty, few local kingdoms rose to powe. The Vijaynagar kingdom was one of the most powerful one. The great king Krishnadeva Raya belonged to Vijaynagar kingdom. After failing the kingdom was finally captured by the Muslim invaders. In the middle of the 16th century, the state saw the emergence of the Qutb Shahi dynaty. They were defeated by the Mughals, to be precise by Aurangazeb’s son. In 1707, Hyderabad was declared independent and went under the rule of the Nizams. The Nizams were great allies of the British and they helped the Europeans to defeat Tipu Sultan of Mysore.
After the Indian independence, Andhra Pradesh became the first state to be formed on the basis of language. The Telegu speaking people were given twenty one districts, out of which nine were in the Nizam’s Dominions and the rest in the Madras Presidency. However an agitation in 1953, eleven districts of the Madras state were taken to form a new Andhra state with Kurnool as its capital. Nine districts under the Nizam were later added to form the enlarged state of Andhra Pradesh in 1956. Hyderabad became the capital of the state, which is one of the most technologically advanced cities of the modern India.
Facts about Andhra Pradesh
|Area||1,60,000 Sq Km|
|Population||8.46 Crores (2011 census)|
|Principal official Language||Telugu (First State formed on linguistic basis)|
|Established||· 1 October 1953; 62 years ago (first established)
· 1 November 1956; 59 years ago (re-organised for 1st time).
· 2 June 2014; 18 months ago (re-organised for 2nd time)
|Climate||· Summer temperature ranging between 20 °C and 41 °C.
· winter temperature is generally 12 °C to 30 °C
· State has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold.
|Capital||· Hyderabad (De jure – 02 June 2024)
· Amaravati (proposed)
|Members of Lok Sabha||25 (Rajya Sabha seats_ 11)|
|Legislature||Bicameral (assembly seats 175, legislative councils seats_54|
|Airports||· Visakhapatnam Airport is the only airport in the state with international connectivity.
· Five domestic airports: Vijayawada Airport at Gannavaram, Rajahmundry Airport at Madhurapudi, Tirupati Airport at Renigunta, Cuddapah and Puttaparthi(privately owned)
|Festivals||Ugadi is celebrated as the Telugu New Year.
Makara Sankranti, Dasara, Vinayaka Chaviti, Deepavali, Vasantotsavam, Maha Shivaratri, Attla Taddi etc. Muslim festivals include Bakrid, Ramadan and Christians celebrate Christmas and Easter.
|Economy Size||US$ 90 billion,
Economy mainly based on agriculture and livestock. It is also known as “Rice Bowl of India & “Egg Bowl of Asia”.
|Industries||Cement, Paper, Asbestos, BHEL, Hindustan Shipyard, Bharat Dynamics limited|
|Districts||13, larges city Visakhapatnam|
|Sex Ratio (as per 2011 census)||993 per thousand male|
|Principal Folk Dances||Kuchipudi is the state’s best-known classical dance form. Others are Kuchipudi, Andhra Natyam, Bhamakalapam, Veeranatyam and folk dances (Janapada Nrutyam) forms such as Butta bommalu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Dhimsa, and Chindu.|
|Principal Rivers||Godavari, Krishna, Pennar, Musi, Vamsdhara|
|Principal Minerals||Copper, Mica, Manganese, Gold, Asbestos, Petroleum, Coal, Magnesite, Iron|
|Main Crops||Rice, Tobocco, Oilseeds, Jute, Cotton, Sugarcane, Turmeric, Groundnut, Cashewnuts|
|Tourist Spots||Tirumala Temple, Simhachalam Temple, Srisailam temple, Buddhist centres at Amaravati, Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Indira Gandhi Zoological Park, Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary.|
GK Quiz on Andhra Pradesh
1. Which is the official language of Andhra Pradesh?
2. Which Indian state is to the north of Andhra Pradesh?
3. Which was the capital of Andhra Pradesh before 1 November 1956?
4. From which state was Andhra Pradesh separated?
5. What is Capital of Andhra Pradesh state?
D. None of These
6. The battle of Padmanabham took place in the year
7. Total number of districts in Andra Pradesh?
8. What is to the east of Andhra Pradesh?
A. Arabian Sea
B. Bay of Bengal
C. Gulf of Cambay
D. Palk Strait
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