Sun Microsystems created the Java programming language in the early 1990s. A straightforward, effective, general-purpose language is Java. Java was initially created for multi-platform, embedded network applications. It is an interpreted, portable, and object-oriented language. Regardless of hardware specifications or operating system, the same Java application will function the same on any machine as long as it contains a Java interpreter. In addition to portability, Java has several security mechanisms that guard computers running Java programs from both problems brought on by malicious software and those generated by incorrect programming.Java is a language that can be both compiled and interpreted. Its source code is made accessible to the public and is an open standard.
To change the meaning of the definitions, you can add modifiers like keywords. They are keywords that control how accessible classes, methods, and other members are in object-oriented languages. Access modifiers are a particular type of syntax used in programming languages that make it easier to encapsulate components. Modifiers in the Java language come in a vast variety. You must include a modifier’s keyword in the definition of a class, method, or variable to utilize it. The rest of the statement comes before the modifier.
Modifiers in Java
Modifiers are keywords that set the accessibility of class, methods, etc. Modifiers are a great help to object-oriented programming languages. In java, we can add modifiers like keywords to the definitions to change their meaning. Two types of modifiers provided by Java are:
- Access Modifiers
- Non-Access Modifiers
Access Modifiers in Java
Access control for classes, methods, and variables can be specified via access modifiers. In Java, the accessibility (visibility) of classes, interfaces, variables, methods, constructors, data members, and setter methods can be adjusted using access modifiers. There are four access modifiers in Java. They are:
Let us look into these four access modifiers in detail.
Declarative text is only accessible inside the container. For classes, methods, variables, etc., the default access modifier is taken into account if no explicit access modifier is specified. A compilation issue will occur if we attempt to utilize a class outside of defaultPackage in another class.
Declarations are only accessible to members of the class. When designated private, variables and methods cannot be accessible from outside the class. if access to private variables is required. The getters and setters method is available to us.
All subclasses or the package can see declarations. When methods and data members are marked as protected, we can access them both from subclasses and within the same package. The child classes have access to protected methods.
There are announcements everywhere. When functions, variables, classes, and other objects are made public, anyone can access them. There is no scope limitation on the public access modifier.
Non-Access Modifiers in Java
These several types of modifiers are used to regulate several different features, such as inheritance capabilities, whether or not each object in our class has its own set of member values for those members, and if a method may be overridden in a subclass. Non-Access modifiers provided by Java are:
The explanation for non-access modifiers is given below:
In a static access modifier in Java, the member is a part of the class, not its objects. Using a static access modifier in java, a class member becomes independent of all class objects. It’s crucial to understand that variables and methods cannot access non-static variables and methods while using the static access modifier in java.
In the final access modifier in Java, Once assigned, variable values cannot be modified, methods cannot be overridden, and classes cannot be inherited. The final access modifier in java is used to define constants and prevents overridden or to prevent class from being inherited.
The abstract modifier, if applied to a method, then a subclass must implement it; if applied to a class, then there are abstract methods.
In synchronized modifier, it restricts a block’s or method’s access to threads. We need to find a way to guarantee that only one thread at a time can access a resource while two or more need to use it.
In a variable modifier, instead of reading from the memory of a particular thread, the variable value is always read from the main memory.
In the transient type of modifier, When an object is serialized, the member is ignored.
Access modifiers and Non-access modifiers are two key modifier types offered by the Java programming language. The two main types of non-access modifiers provided by java are static access modifiers and final access modifiers.