The security forces which handle different threats in India are classified into the Indian Armed Forces, Paramilitary Forces of India and the Central Armed Police Forces. India also has dedicated Special Forces within each security force as well as two specialized Anti-Terrorism, Urban Warfare and VIP protection units.
Most of the internal security challenges and their management in border areas are also handled by both the Defence Ministry and the Home Ministry. Internal security threats such as insurgencies, separatism and riots etc are the primary responsibility of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
Internal Security Forces and Agencies
Indian security forces face many internal and external threats. And the various specialized forces of India have to deal with these threats. The various armed forces of the Union of India have separate mandates and are handled by different ministries. The majority of the external security threats in India are managed by the Ministry of Defence with the help of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
Security Forces were classified in to,
- Indian Armed Force
- Central Armed Police Force
Indian Armed Force
The different armed forces of the Union of India are having separate mandates handled by different ministries. Indian armed force is divided into four sub-heads:
- Indian Air Force
- Indian Army
- Indian Coast Guard
- Indian Navy
Indian Air Force
The Indian Air Force was officially established on 8 October 1932. Its first ac flight came into being on 01 Apr 1933 with six RAF-trained officers and 19 Havai Sepoys (air soldiers). It is considered the 4th largest Air force in the world.
The Indian Air Force is the air arm of the Indian Armed Forces. Its complement of personnel and aircraft assets ranks third amongst the air forces of the world. Its primary mission is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during armed conflict.
It was known as the Royal Indian Air Force in recognition of its services during the Second World War. After Independence, the term ‘Royal’ was omitted.
The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Army, and its professional head is the Chief of Army Staff (COAS), who is a four-star general. The Indian Army is the second largest army in the world, and is a branch of Indian armed forces, specialised in operating on land.
It is also the largest component of the Indian armed forces. The chief responsibilities of the Indian Army include national security and maintaining unity, protecting India from external and internal threats, maintaining peace and security within Indian borders, and also conducting rescue operations during natural calamities and disasters. The Indian Army has been the largest contributor to the UN peacekeeping forces, and India also holds credit of forming the first Female Formed Police Unit under the UN.
Indian Coast Guard
The Indian Coast Guard was formally established on 1 February 1977 by the Coast Guard Act, 1978 of the Parliament of India. The Indian Coast Guard (ICG) is a maritime law enforcement and search and rescue agency of India with jurisdiction over its territorial waters including its contiguous zone and exclusive economic zone.
Deployment of sophisticated and high-value naval warships and assets was clearly not an optimal alternative for these tasks.
The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Navy. The Indian Navy secures India’s maritime borders and interests. It also safeguards Indian trading vessels by combating piracy on the high seas. Along with this, it assists the common people during disasters. The Indian Navy is deployed under three Commands:
- The Eastern Naval command – Visakhapatnam is the headquarter.
- Western Naval command – Mumbai is the headquarter
- Southern Naval Command – Kochi is the headquarter.
Central Armed Police Force
- The Central Reserve Police Force is primarily responsible for defending the national interest against internal threats
- The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) oversees seven central police units that assist in maintaining internal security and maintaining law and order.
There are seven Central Police Forces under the Union Government,
- Border Security Force (BSF)
- Assam Rifles (AR)
- Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
- Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
- National Security Guard (NSG)
- Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
- Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)
Border Security Force (BSF)
- It is presently stands as the world’s largest border guarding force. BSF has been termed as the First Wall of Defence of Indian Territories.
- The Border Security Force (BSF) is the number one Border Guarding police force of India. It become raised withinside the wake of the 1965 War on 1 December 1965, “for making sure the safety of the borders of India and for subjects linked there with”.
- Three battalions of the BSF, placed at Kolkata, Guwahati and Patna, are precise because the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF). The battalions are prepared and skilled for all herbal screw ups which include fighting Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) screws up.
- India’s borders with Pakistan were manned by the State Armed Police Battalion till 1965.
- It currently stands as the world’s largest border guarding force. BSF has been termed as the First Wall of Defence of Indian Territories.
Assam Rifles (AR)
- The Assam Rifles came into force in 1835, as a militia called the ‘Cachar Levy’, to primarily protect British Tea estates and their settlements against tribal raids.
- The Post-Independence function of the Assam Rifles persevered to adapt starting from traditional fight function at some stage in Sino-India War 1962, working in overseas land as a part of the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) to Sri Lanka in 1987 (Op Pawan) to peacekeeping function withinside the North-Eastern regions of India.
- This force plays a crucial role in North East India, handling counterinsurgency and border security operations.
- They are also guarding the 1,643 km long Indo-Myanmar border since 2002.
- It is considered the oldest of all paramilitary forces and one of the six Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF).
- It is headed by an Army officer of the rank of Lieutenant General. It currently reports to the Ministry of Home Affairs.
Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
- The Central Reserve Police Force was established by the enactment of the CRPF Act in 1949.
- The Central Reserve Police Force came into existence as Crown Representative’s Police on 27th July 1939.
- The assignment of the Central Reserve Police Force is to allow the authorities to hold Rule of Law, Public Order and Internal Security successfully and efficiently, to Preserve National Integrity and Promote Social Harmony and Development via way of means of upholding the supremacy of the Constitution.
- It also assists the State and Union Territories in police operations to maintain law and order.
- With 246 battalions and diverse different facilities, the CRPF is taken into consideration the most important paramilitary pressure in India and has been sanctioned via way of means of extra than 300,000 team of workers on account that 2019.
Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
- Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) was established in 1969, under an Act of Parliament, “Central Industrial Security Force Act, 1968.”
- CISF is currently providing security cover to nuclear installations, space establishments, airports, seaports, power plants, sensitive Government buildings and ever heritage monuments.
- It provides integrated security cover to the Public Sector Undertakings, airports and SEZs on a case to case basis.
- CISF is the only force with a customized and dedicated fire wing.
- The important responsibilities recently entrusted to the CISF are the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, VIP Security etc.
National Security Guard (NSG)
- It was established on 22nd September 1986. National Security Guard was raised in 1984, following Operation Blue Star and the assassination of Indira Gandhi.
- The National Security Guards is a special forces unit under the Ministry of Home affairs.
- It is established to counter the surge of militancy in the country.
- The NSG’s is trained to conduct counter terrorist task to including counter hijacking tasks on land, sea, and air; Bomb disposal, PBI (Post Blast Investigation) and Hostage Rescue missions.
- It was raised to combat terrorist activities and to guarantee the states do not experience any internal disturbances.
- The Force is not designed to undertake the functions of the State Police Forces or other Para Military Forces of the Union of India.
- They played a crucial role in countering the Mumbai Taj terrorist attacks.
Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
- The Indo-Tibetan Border Police was established after the 1962 Sino-Indian conflict.
- It was created under the CRPF Act.
- It guards the Indo-Tibetan border and the mountainous regions of the India-China border and monitor the northern borders.
- ITBP replaced Assam Rifles in Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh in 2004.
- It detects and prevents border violations.
- It has been deployed in UN peacekeeping missions in Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Haiti, Western Sahara, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Afghanistan and Sudan.
- The India-China border covering the following state is guarded by the ITBP:
- Jammu & Kashmir
- Himachal Pradesh
- Arunachal Pradesh
Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)
- The Sashastra Seema Bal was established in March 1963.
- They guard Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan Borders.
- They are also deployed during elections as polling booth security.
- Previously, it was known as the Special Service Bureau and they are deployed to control anti-national activities and inculcate feelings of national belonging in the border population among others.
- Its area of coverage included 15 states.
- It also acts against smuggling and other illegal activities.
- The current SSB chief (2022) is Kumar Rajendra Chandra, IPS.
Special Forces of India
National Investigation Agency (NIA)
- The National Investigation Agency Bill 2008 to create the agency was moved in Parliament by Union Home Minister on 16 December 2008.
- The NIA was created in response to the Nov 2008 Mumbai terror attacks as need for a central agency to combat terrorism was found.
- National Investigation Agency (NIA) is the central agency to combat terror in India.
Research and Analysis Wing (RAW)
- RAW stands for Research and Analysis Wing of India and IB stands for Intelligence Bureau.
- The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW) is the primary foreign intelligence agency of India.
- It is also involved in the security of India’s nuclear programme.
- It was established in 1968 following the intelligence failures of the Sino-Indian and Indo-Pakistani wars.
- RAW always looks after the tasks related to counter terrorism and external intelligence. One of the chief functions of RAW is covert operations
- They are also responsible for contributing foreign policy making of the country.
Special Protection Group (SPG)
- It was being force in 1985.
- The Special Protection Group (SPG) under the Cabinet Secretariat commences under Special Protection Group Act, 1988.
- It is an armed force of the Union for providing immediate security to the Prime Minister of India, the former Prime Minister and members of their close family members.
- The Special Protection Group is the nodal protection agency in the country.
Intelligence Bureau (IB)
- Intelligence Bureau (IB) is a reputed intelligence agency in India.
- IB comes under the authority of the Ministry of Home affairs.
- They undertake security related tasks assigned to them by the supervisor.
- They deal with emergencies in an orderly manner.
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