Jharkhand is a state in India that is located in the country’s northeast. Jharkhand is bordered on the north by Bihar, on the east by West Bengal, on the south by Odisha, on the west by Chhattisgarh, and on the northwest by Uttar Pradesh. Ranchi is the state capital.
In the year 2000, the southern part of Bihar was divided into Jharkhand, one of India’s newest states. The Adivasis, or Scheduled Tribes, had been fighting for statehood for a long time (an official term applied primarily to indigenous communities that fall outside the predominant Indian caste hierarchy). The inhabitants of Jharkhand received comparatively little socioeconomic advantage as a result of Indian independence, leading to significant dissatisfaction with the Bihar administration, particularly among tribal peoples. The tribal groups began calling for Bihar’s independence, and in the 1980s, they became more aggressive in their demands. Separationist sentiment spread to non-tribal communities in the 1990s, leading to the formation of a new state.
History of Jharkhand
The area was dominated by chiefs of numerous indigenous groups prior to the arrival of the British in Chota Nagpur. In 1765, the territory was annexed by the British as part of Bihar. During the second half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th, as the British steadily established their influence over the plains to the north of present-day Jharkhand, revolts against them arose in Chota Nagpur. The Ho insurrection (1820–27) and the Munda uprising (1831–32) were the most significant of these uprisings.
From the time of British expansion till the turn of the twenty-first century, Jharkhand’s history was intertwined with that of Bihar. Chota Nagpur was divided from Bihar on Nov. 15, 2000, after decades of mounting unrest, particularly among indigenous peoples, to establish Jharkhand, India’s 28th state.
People of Jharkhand
Jharkhand is home to 26.90 million people, with 13.86 million men and 13.04 million women. Jharkhand, like the majority of our states, is a melting pot where people from all over the country have settled. The original occupants, on the other hand, are extremely visible. Tribes make up 28% of the population, Scheduled Castes make up 12%, and others make up 60%. 941 females to 1000 males is the sex ratio. For every square kilometre of land, there are 274 people. However, population density varies greatly, ranging from 148 people per square kilometre in Gumla to 1167 people per square kilometre in Dhanbad. Around ten percent of the population speaks Bengali, while seventy percent speaks Hindi in various dialects.
There are 32 separate tribal communities, with the Santhals, Oraons, Mundas, and Hos being the most prominent. Asur, Baiga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia, Binjhia, Binjhia, Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Chick-Baraik, Gond, Gorait, Karmali, Kharwar, Khond, Kisan, Kora, Korwa, Lohra, Mahli, Mal-Paharia, Parhaiya, Sauria-Paharia, Savar, Bhum The state’s main communities have a substantial presence, as seen by their festivals, rituals, music, language, and literature. Their habits are so unusual that they have influenced the characteristics of the communities in which they live. In fact, in some Jharkhand districts, the tribal population outnumbers the non-tribal population.
Economy of Jharkhand
Jharkhand In comparison to the national average, the economy has grown slowly. Jharkhand’s economy is based on mineral resources, industries, agriculture, and tourism. In 2004, the state’s gross domestic output was US$ 14 billion.
The mining resources sector provides revenue to the state of Jharkhand’s economy, as the state has a large mineral reserve. Nearly 40% of India’s mineral reserves are located in this state. Iron ore, granite, coal, copper, mica, bauxite, and chromite are some of the minerals found in Jharkhand. In 2006, the state’s mineral production totaled Rs. 5,000 crore. Jharkhand’s mineral products are also exported to nations like Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, South Africa, and Nepal. Minerals worth roughly ‘3 crore were exported by the state. Jharkhand’s economy has benefited greatly from this sector.
To a considerable extent, the state of Jharkhand’s economy is reliant on the industrial sector for revenue. This is due to the presence of industrialised cities like as Bokaro, Jamshedpur, and Dhanbad in the state. Tata Iron and Steel Company, Indian Tube Company, Sriram Bearing, Usha Martin, and Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company are all located in Jharkhand. Jharkhand’s industrial sector has contributed to the state’s economic growth.
Jharkhand’s economy is also fueled by the agricultural sector, which employs about 75 percent of the state’s population. Rice, oilseeds, wheat, potatoes, maize, and pulses are among the crops farmed in Jharkhand. Ladies finger, brinjal, tomato, cabbage, mango, lemon, and papaya are among the vegetables and fruits grown in the state. Jharkhand generated more than 21 lakh tonnes of agricultural produce on a land area of around 18.05 lakh hectares. This sector has also aided the growth of the Jharkhand economy to some extent.
The tourism sector generates cash for Jharkhand’s economy, although it contributes far too little. This is owing to the fact that, despite the fact that the state has religious and archaeological sites, as well as lakes, hills, and wildlife, the state administration has not fully utilised this sector. Cottage industry, IT industry, and silk goods are some of the other industries that contribute to Jharkhand’s economy. The state administration has begun to make some attempts to strengthen the economy of Jharkhand by expanding infrastructure and encouraging the establishment of new companies.Jharkhand’s economy has expanded slowly over the years, but the state government’s recent initiatives are expected to yield dividends and boost the state’s economy.
Famous Places in Jharkhand
Baidyanath Jyotirlinga, Deoghar
Baba Dham, also known as Baidyanath Dham, is one of Lord Shiva’s twelve Jyotirlingas. There are 22 temples on campus dedicated to various Gods and Goddesses, and the Shravan Mela is held here every year during the holy month of Shravan.
Shikharji Mountain Peak, Giridih
Shikharji is the highest peak in the Parasnath Range, located in Jharkhand’s Giridih district, and a popular Jain pilgrimage spot with numerous Jain temples.
Jubilee Park of Jamshedpur
Is a popular tourist destination for visitors from all around the state. The 200-acre park has a zoo, amusement park, garden, and fountains.
Rock Garden of Ranchi
Is located approximately 4 kilometres from Ranchi town. Ranchi Rock Garden is one of India’s top five spectacular rock gardens.
Is one of India’s top ten tallest dams, and the first of its sort in Southeast Asia, with an underground power station, and was built to prevent flooding on the Barakar River near Dhanbad. The Damodar Valley’s largest reservoir contains a one-of-a-kind subterranean power facility that covers 65 square kilometres.
Tata Steel Zoological Park
Tata Zoo, commonly known as Tata Park, is a zoo located near Jubilee Park that is home to a variety of wild animals. In Jharkhand, the Tata Zoo and Ranchi Zoo are two of the most well-known wild animal parks.
The Hundru waterfall
The 34th highest waterfall in India, with a total height of 98 metres, is located in Ranchi (322 ft). The Subarnarekha River creates Hundru Falls, which is one of the highest waterfalls in the state of Jharkhand.
Betla National Park
Located in Latehar’s Chota Nagpur Plateau, it is home to a diverse range of species. Betla Park was one of the first wildlife parks in India to be designated as a Project Tiger tiger reserve.
Interesting facts about Jharkhand
- Mineral resources such as iron ore, coal, mica, limestone, graphite, and others abound throughout the state. It also accounts for 40% of India’s overall mineral resources.
- Ranchi, the state’s capital, is renowned as the “City of Waterfalls.” Among the other cities on the list, it too receives financing for smart city development.
- Forests and woodlands cover more than 29% of the state, making it one of the most densely forested in India.
- Jamshedpur, in Jharkhand, is India’s first planned industrial city.
- Jharkhand’s tribal language is identical to that of the Harappan civilization (Indus Valley Civilization).
- Ranchi is home to India’s largest flag, which is 493 feet tall. This flag is India’s largest and has the tallest flagpole.
- Ranchi is one of the few Indian cities to bear the name of a British ship.The SS Ranchi was a British ocean liner that carried passengers and freight. During World War II, it served as the HMS Ranchi, an armed merchant cruiser.
- India’s coal capital is Dhanbad.
- It is home to Asia’s largest steel plant. Bokaro Steel City was one of India’s earliest planned cities.
- The average literacy rate of Jamshedpur is 85.94 percent, higher than the national average of 74 percent.
- Jamshedpur, also known as the “Pittsburgh of India,” is Jharkhand’s industrial capital.
Jharkhand General Knowledge Quiz
Q.1. Which place is also known as “Shimla of Jharkhand”?
Q.2. In which year National Games was held in Jharkhand?
Q.3. Bihar is located on the ________ side of Jharkhand?
Q.4. Total Number of Legislature Unicameral in Jharkhand?
Q.5. Which one is the sub-capital of Jharkhand?
Q.6. What is the name of the festival of flowers of the Adivasis in Jharkhand?
Q.7. Total Number of Parliamentary constituency in Jharkhand?
Q.8. What is official language of Jharkhand state?
Q.9. Total number of districts in Jharkhand?
Q.10. Which one is the state bird of Jharkhand?
Q.11. Which one is the largest district of Jharkhand by area wise?
Ans. Pashchimi Singhbhum
Q.12. Which is the Jharkhand state Animal?
Q.13. Which hill station of Jharkhand is known as the “Queen of Chotanagpur”?
Q.14. Who has established the Jamshedpur city?
Ans. JN Tata
Q.15. Total Number of Wildlife Sanctuary In Jharkhand?