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Mizoram is the southern most landlocked state in Northeastern India. It comprises a total area of 21,081 square kilometer. The word Mizoram means Land of the Mizos. It’s a combination of two words Mizo, the self described name of the native inhabitants, and Ram, which means land in the ‘Mizo’ language. It shares it’s borders with three of the Seven Sister States of the Northeast namely Tripura (in the northwest), Assam (in the north) and Manipur (in the northeast). It also shares it’s border with the neighboring countries of Bangladesh in the west and Myanmar in the east and south. The capital of Mizoram is Aizawl which lies in the north central part of the state. It has 11 districts of which Lunglei district is the largest.
Initially, in 1954, Mizoram was a part of the state of Assam and was known as the Lushai Hills District. It then became known as Mizoram when it became a union territory in 1972. In 1986 the Indian Parliament adopted the 53rd amendment of the Indian Constitution, which allowed for the creation of the State of Mizoram on 20 February 1987. Thus Mizoram became the 23rd state of India.
Geographical Facts of Mizoram
Mizoram is a mountainous region with variegated hilly terrain. The hills are steep and are separated by rivers which flow through them. The highest peak in Mizoram is the Phawngpui (Blue Mountain) with a height of 2210 meters. The swift flowing rivers, streams and still lakes add to the beauty of the state.
The Climate of Mizoram
Mizoram enjoys a moderate climate. It is generally cool in summer and not very cold in winter. The temperature varies from 11 degree Centigrade to 21degree Centigrade in winter and in summer it varies between 20 degree Centigrade to 30 degree Centigrade.
Mizoram witnesses three seasons- summer, winter and monsoon. Summer starts in March and the monsoon season usually begins in May. Extreme temperatures are not observed during any of the seasons.
Flora and Fauna of Mizoram
Tropical semi-evergreen, tropical moist deciduous, subtropical broadleaved hill and subtropical pine forests are the most common vegetation types found in Mizoram. More than three-fourths of the land area of Mizoram is covered by forests. Mizoram is the third highest forest cover in India with 1594000 hectares. Bamboo can be found very commonly in the state. Of the many spice crops, ginger, turmeric and birds eye chili are the major spice crops of Mizoram. Ceylon Ironwood is the official tree of Mizoram.
Mizoram is host to numerous species of birds and wildlife. This includes elephants, tigers, bears, deer, monkeys, gibbons, and serows (wild goatlike mammals). The state is also home to many reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrates. Mrs. Hume’s pheasant is the state bird and the Sumatran serow is the state bird.
The ten wildlife sanctuaries of Mizoram are a must visit for all animal lovers.
- Dampa Wildlife Sanctuary
- Lengteng Wildlife Sanctuary
- Ngengpui Wildlife Sanctuary
- Pualreng Wildlife Sanctuary
- Tawi Wildlife Sanctuary
- Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary
- Saza Wildlife Sanctuary
- Sinemon Wildlife Sanctuary
- Lohawka Wildlife Sanctuary
- Khawnglung Wildlife Sanctuary
Population of Mizoram
According to Unique Identification Aadhar of India, the population of Mizoram in 2022 is estimated to be 1.27 Million (12.7 Lakhs). It is one of the most sparsely populated states of India. The population density decreases from north to south, due to a southward increase in humidity and temperature that makes the area less suitable for habitation.
People of Mizoram
About 95% of Mizoram’s population descends from a diverse tribal origin. Mizos first began to settle in the area in the 16th century. Among all of the states of India, Mizoram has the highest concentration of tribal people. They mostly belong to the Scheduled Tribes. The majority of the population of Mizoram is Christian followed by Buddhists, Muslims and Hindus.
Economy of Mizoram
Agriculture is the dominant economic activity of Mizoram. The two types of agriculture followed by the people of Mizoram are terrace agriculture and shifting agriculture. Rice, maize, cotton, and vegetables are the main crops grown in Mizoram.
There are several small scale industries in Mizoram. This includes handloom and handicrafts workshops, sawmills and furniture manufacturing, oil refining, grain milling, ginger processing and sericulture. Many women indulge in weaving and basketry,
Cultural Life of Mizoram
Mizoram is a state of vibrant cultural entity. The festivals of Mizoram exhibit the vast cultural diversity of the state. Some of the festivals celebrated are Mim Kut, Chapchar Kut, Pawl Kut and Thalfavang Kut.
Music and dance are important elements in the life of Mizos. The people of Mizoram love to indulge in dances, thus making their life vibrant and cheerful. Some of the traditional dance forms of Mizoram are Cheraw, Khuallam, Chailam and Sarlamkai.
Mizo cuisine focuses mainly on non-vegetarian dishes served on banana leaves. Fish, chicken, pork and beef are popular meats among Mizos. Rice is the staple food of Mizoram. Their food is less spicy as compared to other regions. Bamboo shoots are used to give the dishes the aroma.
Mizo, also known as Mizo ṭawng, and English are the official languages of Mizoram.
Clothing of Mizoram
The original garment of the Mizos is known as puan. It is worn by both men and women and has shades of black, white, and red. Some of the different types of puan are: Thangou Puon, Ngotekherh and cyhna hno. Headgears are an integral part of the traditional garments. These headgears are basically coronals made with raw materials such as canes and bamboos. The traditional dress for men in Mizoram is a long drape around five to six feet long. They wrap themselves with this. They also have a traditional coat in red and white. Some of the traditional clothing of the women of Mizoram are:
Kawrchei: A distinctive blouse of the ladies made of cotton.
Zakuolaisen: A traditional dress worn by the unmarried girls. It is a beautiful blouse with crimson colored stripes on it.
Puon pie: A traditional dress worn only by married women.
Places of Interest in Mizoram
Mizoram is known for it’s evergreen hills, dense bamboo jungles, gushing rivers and high sparkling waterfalls. The serene atmosphere of Mizoram, the natural beauty and the blend of cultures makes it a place worth visiting.
- Murlen National Park
- Vantawng waterfalls: The thirteenth highest waterfall in the country.
- Mamit: Haven For Wildlife Enthusiasts
- The village of Reiek
- Hmuifang: Hill station
- Dampa Tiger Reserve
- Phawngpui Peak: The highest point in the state
- Solomon Temple
- Mizoram State Museum
- Rih Dil: A heart shaped lake located at the border of Mizoram and Myanmar
Mizoram General Knowledge Quiz
What is the meaning of the word ‘Mizoram’?
a) Land of the Mizos
b) Land of the Rising Sun
c) Land of the Christians
d) Land of the Free People
Ans: a) Land of the Mizos
Which are the neighboring states of Mizoram?
a) Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya
b) Manipur, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh
c) Tripura, Nagaland, Assam
d) Assam, Tripura, and Manipur
Ans: d) Assam, Tripura, and Manipur
Which among the following states is larger in size than Mizoram?
Ans: a) Manipur
Who is the current Chief Minister of Mizoram?
d) Himanta Biswa Sarma
Ans: a) Zoramthanga
Which Political Party does Chief Minister Zoramthanga belong to?
a) Indian National Congress
b) Bhartiya Janata Party
c) Mizo National Front
d) Aam Aadmi Party
Ans: c) Mizo National Front
Who is the current Governor of Mizoram?
a) Brig B.D Mishra (Retd.)
b) P. S. Sreedharan Pillai
c) Dr. Hari Babu Kambhampati
d) Keshari Nath Tripathi
Ans: a) Brig B.D Mishra (Retd.)
What is the Official Language of Mizoram?
a) Mizo and Hindi
b) Mizo and English
c) Mizo, Hindi and English
Ans: b) Mizo and English
Which is the highest Mountain Peak in Mizoram?
Ans: d) Phawngpui
Which is the biggest river in Mizoram?
Ans: a) Siaha
Which is the largest district in Mizoram?
Ans: c) Lunglei
How many assembly constituencies are there in Mizoram?
Ans: b) 40
Who was the first Chief Minister of Mizoram?
a) Ch. Chhunga
b) T. Sailo
c) Lal Thanhawla
d) Hiteswar Saikia
Ans: a) Ch. Chhunga
Which is the heart shaped lake in Mizoram?
a) Palak lake
b) Tam Dil
c) Rih Dil
d) rung Dil
Mizoram is a lovely and serene state with diverse culture. The Mizo culture is reflective of the brotherhood, happiness, festivity, and deep-rooted ethnicity.