Table of Contents
To begin with, the Mughal Empire or Moghuls role in the History of India is unmatched to any other. The Mughal Emperors ruled our country for a long period of 300 years during which the prosperity of the country was at its zenith. From the period between 1526 and 1761, nineteen Mughal Emperors belonging to thirteen different generations ruled India. However, the entire period of Mughal Rule was not all flowers. There were an enormous number of deadly battles that were fought between different kingdoms and dynasties. So, in this article, let us have a check on all the major Battles during Mughal Rule. Stay Tuned!
The Mughals In India
As the history says, the Mughal Empire is believed to be founded by Emperor Babur in 1526. He was a warrior belonging to the current location of Uzbekistan belonging to the Ottoman Empire. With his exceptional skills and strategy along with the leadership qualities Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi in the first battle of Panipat. This led to the downfall of the Delhi Sultanate and the up rising of the Mughal Empire in India.
Starting from 1562, the Mughal Empire flourished all across the Indian subcontinent including the modern-day countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. Even though the Mughals came as conquerors into the indian Subcontinent, they did not colonize the country. Instead they remained as natives rather than colonists. By encouraging trade and transport along with literature, art and culture, the Mughal Empire helped India to be one of the world’s powerful nations. This brought about a change in all spheres of life in the days back then.
Before the arrival of Mughals in India, our country was composed of hundreds of small kingdoms battling it on each other. Later, after the establishment of the mughal Empire, we can clearly say that India became almost united under one rule. However, many battles, big and small, took place during the reign of the Mughal Empire. In this article, let us examine the major battles fought during the Mughal rule.
Battles During Mughal Rule
During the times when the Mughal Monarch governed India, numerous battles were fought between various dynasties and kingdoms. What more to say! The entry of Mughal Empire to India History was itself through a battle. Even though there are almost a hundred battles fought during the period of Mughal Empire, let us check some of the major battles during Mughal Rule and its details here.
The First Battle of Panipat in 1526
On 21st April 1526, Babur of Timurid Dynasty led the forces to fight against Ibrahim Lodhi and his forces belonging to the Lodhi Dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. The Battle was fought at Panipat (present day Haryana) and hence the name. This battle put an end to the Lodhi Dynasty and consequently to the Delhi Sultanate. Also, it saw the rise of Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent. Furthermore, the first battle of Panipat is believed to be the earliest battles that used gunpowder firearms in the Indian Subcontinent
The Battle of Khanwa in 1527
Khanwa is a district in Rajasthan where the Battle of Khanwa took place on 16th March 1527. With this battle win, the Mughal Empire amalgamated its reign in India.
The Battle of Chanderi in 1528
In this battle, the Mughal Empire led by Babur took on the Kingdom of Malwa on 20th January 1528. Through this battle, the Mughals ended the Rajput Supremacy and established their own Empire.
The Battle of Ghaghra in 1529
Followed by the First battle of panipat and the battle of Chanderi and Khanwa, the Battle of Ghagra took place in order to establish the Mughal Rule in India. It was fought on 6th May 1529 near Ghagra river.
The Battle of Machhiwarra & Sirhand in 1555
The Mughal Empire and the Suri Empire fought the battle of Machhiwarra & Sirhand on 15th May and 22nd June respectively in 1555. Humayun could easily establish the victory against the Suri Empire that was civil war strikken after the death of Islam Shah Suri.
The Battle of Tughlaqabad in 1556
One of the most notable battles fought between the Mughal Empire and the Sur Dynasty is called the Battle of Tughlaqabad on 7th October 1556. This time, the Sur Empire emerged victorious and thus claiming the royal status.
The Second Battle of Panipat 1556
Followed by the battle of Tughlaqabad, the second battle of Panipat was fought on 5 November 1556. Here, the victory of Mughal Empire was evident against the Hindu Emperor Hemu, at the end.
The Battle of Bhuchar Mori in 1591
Also called the Battle of Drol, the battle of Bhuchar Mori was fought between the Kathiawar led by Nawanagar State and the Mughals. The Mughal Empire emerged victorious in this battle.
The Battle of Chausa in 1539
This is a very important battle fought between the Mughal Empire and the Sur Empire. Fought on 26th June 1539 at Chausa, Humayun and Sher Shah Suri battled out only for Suri to be merged victorious.
The Battle of Haldighati in 1576
This battle took place on 18th June 1576, between Maharana pratap of Mewar and Emperor Akbar’s forces. Emperor Akbar’s forces led by Man Singh emerged victorious in the Battle of Haldighati.
The Battle of Bhatwadi in 1624
In this battle that took place in September 1624, the Ahmednagar Sultanate fought against the allies of Bijapur Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. The battle was fought due to the ever increasing conflict of Ahmednagar Sultanate with its neighbours.
The Battle of Amritsar in 1634
The increasing tensions between the Mughal ruler and the Sikh led to the Battle of Amritsar on 14th April 1634. Guru hargobind led the Sikhs in this battle that lasted for two days.
The Battle of Bhupalgarh in 1679
On April 2 in 1679, the Mughals and the Marathas declared war against each other that lasted for 55 days. After a fierce battle, the mughals emerged victorious.
The Battle of Kalyan 1682-1683
From the period between 1682 and 1683, the battle of Kalyan between Marathas and Mughals took place. However, the Marathas were not able to defeat the Mughal Supremacy
The Battle of Wai in 1687
The Mughal Empire and the Maratha Empire fought the Battle of Wai on 16th of December in 1687. This battle took place in Wai, Maharashtra. The Mughals were defeated by the Marathas in the battle of Wai.
The Battle of Jajau in 1707
Unlike the previous battles, the battle of Jajau was fought between two Mughal princes itself. When Emperor Aurangazeb died without having pronounced a successor, his sons Bahadur Shah I and Muhammad Azam Shah battled on 20th june 1707. At the end of the battle, Bahadur Shah emerged as the new Emperor of the Mughal Empire.
The Battle of Bhopal in 1737
Fought between the Marathas and the combined forces of Mughals and Nizam, the battle of Bhopal took place on 24th December in 1737. The aftermath of the war was the victory of the maratha forces.
The Battle of Ambur in 1749
On 3rd August 1729, the battle of Ambur was initiated between the allies of Mughals and the Nawab of Arcot against the French forces. This Battle is popularly called as the second Carnatic war amongst historians. This battle showed the superiority of the European war techniques against the traditional Indian ones.
The Third Battle of Panipat 1761
The third battle among the Panipat Battles took place on 14th January 1761 between the Maratha Empire and the Mughal Empire allies. The almost 27 year old Mughal- MAratha battles posed a major reason for the downfall of the Mughals. However, the Mughals and allies won the third battle of Panipat.
The Battle of Buxar in 1764
Buxar is a small village in Bihar where the Mughal Army fought against the British East India Company on 22nd October 1764. The victory of the East India Company led to the Allahabad Treaty later.
List of Major Mughal Rulers
Mughal rulers ruled India for over a span of 300 years. Out of all the Mughal rulers who ruled India, only a few are renowned for their reigning period. However, here is the complete details of all the Mughal Emperors along with their reigning period.
|Sl No||Name of the Emperor||Reigning Period|
II – 1555–1556
|7||Bahadur Shah I (Shah Alam/Muazzam)||1707–1712|
|13||Ahmad Shah Bahadur||1748–1754|
|15||Shah Jahan III||1759-1760|
|16||Shah Alam II||1760–1806|
|17||Akbar Shah II||1806–1837|
|18||Bahadur Shah II||1837–1857|
List of Major battles during Mughal Rule
In the list given below, we have incorporated some of the famous and important battles in history during the Mughal Rule.
|Sl No||Name of the Battle||Year||Remarks|
|1||First Battle of Panipat||1526||Delhi Sultanate Vs Mughal Empire|
|2||The Battle of Khanwa
|1527||Mughal Empire vs Rajputs|
|3||The Battle of Chanderi
|1528||Kingdom of Malwa Vs Mughal Empire|
|4||The Battle of Ghaghra||1529
|Mughal Empire vs Rajputs|
|5||The Battle of Machhiwarra||1555||Mughal Empire vs Suri Dynasty|
|6||The Battle of Sirhand||1555||Mughal Empire vs Suri Dynasty|
|7||The Battle of Tughlaqabad||1556||Sur Empire Vs Mughal Empire|
|8||The Second Battle of Panipat||1556
|Mughal Empire Vs Hemu|
|9||The Battle of Bhuchar Mori
|1591||Nawanagar State Vs the Mughals|
|10||The Battle of Chausa||1539
|Mughal Empire Vs the Sur Empire|
|11||The Battle of Haldighati
|1576||Mewar Kingdom Vs Mughal Empire|
|12||The Battle of Bhatwadi||1624
|Bijapur Sultanate and the Mughal Empire|
|13||The Battle of Amritsar
|1634||Sikh Vs Mughals|
|14||The Battle of Bhupalgarh
|1679||Maratha Kingdom Vs Mughal Empire|
|15||The Battle of Sangamner||1679||Mughals Vs Marathas|
|16||The Battle of Kalyan
|1682-1683||Mughal Empire Vs Maratha Kingdom|
|17||The Battle of Wai||1687
|Marathas vs Mughals|
|18||The Battle of Nirmohgarh||1702||Sikhs Vs Mughal Empire|
|19||The Battle of Torna||1704||Mughals vs Marathas|
|20||The Battle of Jajau
|1707||Bahadur Shah I Vs Muhammad Azam Shah|
|21||The Battle of Bhopal
|1737||Marathas Vs combined forces of Mughals and Nizam|
|22||The Battle of Ambur
|1749||Mughals vs Nawab of Arcot|
|23||The Third Battle of Panipat
|1761||Allies of Maratha Empire and the Mughal Empire|
|24||The Battle of Buxar
|1764||Mughal Army Vs British East India Company|
List of Battles During Mughal Rule Free PDF Download
Click on the link given below, to download a free PDF containing the list of major battles fought during the Mughal Rule.
We hope that this article was helpful to our readers. As most of us know, Indian History is an integral part of any competitive examination Hence, having a thorough knowledge of the historical events is absolutely necessary to score well in the examination. Make the best use of the study materials available and ace your exam preparations! Good Luck!