Our earth is made of four layers – the crust, the mantel and the inner and outer core. The topmost layer on which we live is called the crust. It is a thin layer made of lighter materials. The mantle is hotter than the crust and the inner and outer core are even hotter. The crust is broken into many parts called ‘plates’, which float over the mantle. These plates may move apart or come closer as they float over the mantle, thereby leading to the expulsion of the hot molten lava from the mantle.
When these plates collide, it leads to the formation of mountains or deep water valleys called trenches or volcanoes. A volcano is formed when the molten magma reaches the surface, which is then called lava. So, volcanoes are those mountains that are formed from volcanic eruptions. They are also defined as the opening in the crust through which the magma and gases escape. Now, let us take a look at the list of famous volcanoes from around the world.
List of Famous Volcanoes in the World
Mount Fuji, Japan
Mount Fuji is one of the most famous volcanoes in the world. It a tourist attraction in Japan. The mountain is of conical shape and has a snow-capped peak. The last eruption of this volcano was in 1708, and it is currently active.
This volcano located in the south of Iceland has its last eruption on April 14th, 2010. Though the eruption was not as powerful as compared to other volcanoes, it disrupted the lives of many. The eruption continued for days together and resulted in the formation of a vast cloud of ash in the sky, which then spread and covered most of Europe. This affected the aviation industry severely, as it is dangerous to fly planes through ash clouds and millions of people could not travel.
Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Mauna Loa, which means ‘Long Mountain’ in Hawaiian, is the world’s largest active volcano. It is situated in the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Since 1843, the volcano has erupted 33 times gaining it the tag of an outrageously active volcano. Though slow-moving, it produces a large amount of lava.
Mount Etna, Italy
Mount Etna is the world’s tallest active volcano in Europe. It is situated outside the city of Catania. It erupted recently on February 16, 2021. As per Greek mythology, God Zeus trapped the deadly monster Typhon under this mountain. The lower valleys of the mountain are rich with fertile volcanic soil making it a suitable ground for agriculture, vineyards and orchards. It was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Site in June 2013.
Mount Vesuvius, Italy
Mount Vesuvius is another famous volcano in Italy. It is an extremely dangerous volcano with a colorful history. In the eruption of 79 AD, it destroyed the town of Pompeii and Herculaneum completely. The eruption of 1906 killed more than 200 people. In 1944, it erupted again and led to the destruction of the nearby town. It is the most densely populated volcanic region in the world and has the potential to affect around 6,00,000 people in case of an eruption.
Krakatoa is a volcanic island that is now a part of Indonesia. It is famous for its eruption in 1883, which is said to be one of the deadliest and most destructive eruptions ever recorded. An increasing volcanic activity was witnessed for as long as several months before the main eruption in August 1883. The activity kept intensifying until 27th August, on which day the eruption reached its peak with four massive explosions. The third explosion could be heard as away as 4800 km, making it the loudest sound in history. The eruption caused a tsunami and also destroyed most of Krakatoa. The ash emitted during the eruption lead to the dropping of global temperature for three years.
Mount St. Helens, United States
Mount St. Helens is located in Washington State, USA. It was named after a British diplomat by explorer George Vancouver. The most devastating eruption of this volcano occurred on May 18, 1980. Preceding the eruption, an earthquake caused a landslide on the Northside of the mountain, which is the largest landslide ever recorded. The landslide triggered the volcanic eruption.
Mount Tambora, Indonesia
Mount Tambora or Tomboro is located in Sumbawa, Indonesia. It is an active volcano. The eruption on 10th April 1815, is one of the largest volcanic eruptions in history. The explosion could be heard as far as 2000 km away. Before the major eruption in 1815, the mountain was 4300 m high. After the eruption, the elevation was reduced to 2850 m. The eruption released a huge amount of ash which led to climatic changes. The year 1816 became known as the “year without a summer” due to the impact on North American and European weather.
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