There are 24 High Courts in India. Among them, three have control over more than one State. Among the Union Territories Delhi has a High Court of its own. Each High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and other judges both appointed by the President of India. Under Article 141, all courts in India — including high courts — are bound by the judgments and orders of the Supreme Court of India by precedence. There is no fixed minimum number of judges for the High Courts, it varies from Court to Court. While the Madras High Court has 75 judges, the Meghalaya High Court has only 03. The constitution does not specify the strength of a high court and leaves it to the discretion of the President. Here we are bringing you the list of High Courts in India and all important facts about them.
List of High Courts in India
The institution of the High Court started in India when the high courts were set up in Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras in 1862. The Allahabad High Court was established in 1866.
|S.No.||High Court||Year of Establishment||Act of Establishment||Jurisdiction, Principal seat, and Bench (s)||Chief Justice|
|1.||Allahabad High Court||17 March 1866||Indian High Courts Act, 1861||Jurisdiction: Uttar Pradesh
|2.||Andhra Pradesh High Court||1 January 2019||Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014||Jurisdiction: Andhra Pradesh
|Arup Kumar Goswami|
|3.||Bombay High Court||14 August 1862||Indian High Courts Act, 1861||Jurisdiction: Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Maharashtra
Bench: Aurangabad, Nagpur, Panaji
|4.||Calcutta High Court||1 July 1862||Indian High Courts Act, 1861||Jurisdiction: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, West Bengal
Bench: Port Blair, Jalpaiguri
|T. B. Radhakrishnan|
|5.||Chhattisgarh High Court||1 November 2000||Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000||Jurisdiction: Chhattisgarh
|P. R. Ramachandra Menon|
|6.||Delhi High Court||31 October 1966||Delhi High Court Act, 1966||Jurisdiction: NCT of Delhi
Seat: New Delhi
|Dhirubhai Naranbhai Patel|
|7.||Gauhati High Court||1 March 1948||Government of India Act, 1935||Jurisdiction: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Mizoram, Nagaland
Bench: Aizawl, Itanagar, Kohima
|8.||Gujarat High Court||1 May 1960||Bombay Reorganisation Act, 1960||Jurisdiction: Gujarat
|9.||Himachal High Court||25 January 1971||State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970||Jurisdiction: Himachal Pradesh
|L. Narayana Swamy|
|10.||Jammu & Kashmir High Court||26 March 1928||Letters Patent issued by then Maharaja of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019||Jurisdiction: Jammu & Kashmir, Ladakh
Seat: Srinagar/ Jammu
|11.||Jharkhand High Court||15 November 2000||Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000||Jurisdiction: Jharkhand
|12.||Karnataka High Court||1884||Mysore High Court Act, 1884||Jurisdiction: Karnataka
Bench: Dharwad, Kalaburagi
|Abhay Shreeniwas Oka|
|13.||Kerala High Court||1 November 1956||States Reorganisation Act, 1956||Jurisdiction: Kerala, Lakshadweep
|14.||Madhya Pradesh High Court||2 January 1936||Government of India Act, 1935||Jurisdiction: Madhya Pradesh
Bench: Gwalior, Indore
|15.||Madras High Court||15 August 1862||Indian High Courts Act, 1861||Jurisdiction: Tamil Nadu, Puducherry
|16.||Manipur High Court||25 March 2013||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012||Jurisdiction: Manipur
|17.||Meghalaya High Court||23 March 2013||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012||Jurisdiction: Meghalaya
|18.||Orrisa High Court||3 April 1948||Orissa High Court Ordinance, 1948||Jurisdiction: Orissa
|19.||Patna High Court||2 September 1916||Letters Patent issued by the then British Crown||Jurisdiction: Bihar
|20.||Punjab and Haryana High Court||15 August 1947||Punjab High Court Ordinance, 1947||Jurisdiction: Chandigarh, Haryana, Punjab
|Ravi Shankar Jha|
|21.||Rajasthan High Court||21 June 1949||Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, 1949||Jurisdiction: Rajasthan
|22.||Sikkim High Court||16 May 1975||The 36th Amendment to the Indian Constitution||Jurisdiction: Sikkim
|Jitendra Kumar Maheshwari|
|23.||Telangana High Court||1 January 2019||Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014||Jurisdiction: Telangana
|24.||Tripura High Court||26 March 2013||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Acts (Amendment), 2012||Jurisdiction: Tripura
|25.||Uttarakhand High Court||9 November 2000||Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000||Jurisdiction: Uttarakhand
|Raghvendra Singh Chauhan|
(source: Indian Polity, M. Laxmikant)
Facts about the Judges of the High Courts
- The Judges of a High Court are appointed by the President.
- The Chief Justice is appointed by the President after the consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the Governor of the concerned state.
- A person to be appointed as the High Court Judge,/should have held a judicial office or should have been a high court advocate for ten years.
- There is no minimum age for the appointment of the High Court Judges,
- The constitution has not fixed the tenure of a judge of a high court,
- A judge can be removed from his/her office by an order of the President.
- The Jurisdiction and powers of the High Court are Original Jurisdictions, Writ Jurisdiction, Appellate Jurisdiction, Supervisory Jurisdiction, Control over Subordinate courts, A court of record, Power of Judicial Review.
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High Courts in India
- Delhi is the only Union Territory that has a High Court of its own. All other UT’s fall under the jurisdiction of different State High Courts
- Though Orissa is renamed as Odisha the name of the High Court is not changed, it is still Orissa High Court.
- Guwahati High Court is originally known as Assam High Court and was renamed in 1971.
- Karnataka Highcourt was originally known as Mysore High Court.
- Punjab and Haryana High Court were originally known as Punjab High Court and renamed in 1966.
- Though Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras have renamed after the Independence the High Courts’ names are not changed.
- The Andra Pradesh High Court was renamed the Hyderabad High Court by the Andra Pradesh Re-organisation Act, 2014.
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