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The Martand Sun Temple is a Hindu temple in the Kashmir Valley of Jammu and Kashmir, India, close to the city of Anantnag. The Martand is another name of Sun in Sanskrit, so the temple is dedicated to Sun (Surya). The temple was built by the Lalitaditya Muktapida, the third ruler of the Karkota Dynasty, in the 8th century CE. The temple was ruined by the Kashmiri ruler Sikander Shah Miri.
According to history, Raja Ramdev of the Pandava dynasty constructed the initial Martand temple, which was dedicated to the Sun God, around 3007 BC. The temple complex was rebuilt and renovated by numerous kings and rulers after that. The credit, however, belongs to Maharaja Lalitaditya, who gave the ancient temple a complete makeover and spread its fame around the world in the eighth century AD.
|Martand Sun temple|
|Constructed on||8th Century CE|
|Situated in||Jammu & Kashmir|
|Destroyed||Sikander Shah Miri|
|Demolished||15th century CE|
Martand Sun Temple- History
The Martand Sun Temple, also known as Pandou Laidan, is a Hindu temple constructed in the eighth century CE that is devoted to Surya, the principal solar deity in Hinduism. Another name for Surya in Sanskrit is Martand. The temple is located five miles from Anantnag in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
According to Jonaraja and Hasan Ali, Sikandar Shah Miri (1389–1413) destroyed the temple at the request of a Sufi preacher named Mir Muhammad Hamadani in an effort to islamize society.
Jammu and Kashmir the Lieutenant Governor took part in a religious ritual that was held at the ruins of the Martand Sun temple, an archaeological site that is under the protection of the Archaeological Survey of India. This temple has been designated as a “Site of National Importance.”
The Martand Sun Temple in Jammu and Kashmir has been designated as a site of national importance by the Archaeological Survey of India. Kartanda is the name of the temple on the list of officially protected sites (Sun Temple).
In Indian history, the mediaeval era saw the height of temple architecture. To demonstrate their military prowess and spiritual connection, kings frequently ordered the construction of enormous temples. During this time, large temples were constructed all over India, including the Brihadeeswarar Temple in Tamil Nadu and the Kandariya Mahadev Temple in Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh.
Martand Sun Temple- Infrastructure
The main temple is 63 feet in length, 36 feet in width. It is in the centre of the courtyard. The temple was raised on a plateau and was visible from all sides around Martand.
The temple, which spans 220 feet in length and 142 feet in width overall and incorporates a smaller temple that was previously constructed, has a colonnaded courtyard with its main shrine at its centre and surrounded by 84 lesser shrines.
The Martand Temple was constructed atop a peak from where one could see the entire Kashmir Valley. It is clear from the remains and other archaeological discoveries that this was a superb example of Kashmiri architecture, which combined Chinese, Gupta, and Gandharans styles.
The temple proper contains garbhagriha, antarala and closed mandapa, approached by a grand flight of steps. The pliant supporting the central shrine has two tiers, both with niches having 37 divine figures.
The exterior of the peristyle is plain, with the exception of the west side, which once had a row of columns resembling those found in the temples of Avantipur. It suggests that the engineering style used in the Avantipur temple and the one found in Martand are comparable.
The temple is divided into three sections: Ardhamandapa, which is 18 feet 10 inches square, Autarala, which is 18 feet by 4 ½ feet, and Garbhagriha, which is 18 feet and 5 inches by 13 feet 10 inches. It is thought that Garbhagriha once housed a Sun-god idol. It was a stunning feat of engineering that indicated three gates needed to be passed through in order to get to the main temple. Thus, Aehlok, Parlok, and Pataallok from Hindu mythology can be observed here.
About Lalitaditya Muktapida: Who Builded
The strongest and most powerful emperor of the Karkota dynasty of Kashmir region was Emperor Lalitaditya Muktapida (724–760 AD). Lalitaditya was born in the year of 699 AD as the third son of Durlabhak-Pratapaditya of kashmir. He was from the Nagvanshi Karkota Kayastha Dynasty of Kashmir, whose name is shockingly absent from Indian school textbooks. “Beautiful Sun God” is the meaning of his name Lalit+Aditya. His dominion spanned from modern-day Kolkata in the east to Kabul in the west. Being a man of various interests, Kalhana, a contemporaneous poet and historian, generously praised him in his historical chronicle of Kashmiri monarchs, “Rajatarangini.”
Lalitaditya Muktapida is a person worth studying because of his military prowess as well as his interests in art and religion. He was equally respectful of Buddhism, and is recognised with promoting its art and architecture as well as with erecting Buddhist shrines and sculptures. In the valley, Lalitaditya built numerous cities and shrines. His most stunning masterpiece is the Martand Sun Temple.
About Sikandar Shah Miri: Who Demolished
The Martand Sun Temple was completely demolished, according to legend, in the early 15th century under the direction of Muslim monarch Sikandar Shah Miri, also known as the idol breaker. It was done as part of his campaign to convert Valley Hindus to Islam, which he largely succeeded in achieving through widespread persecution of Hindus, the destruction of Hindu-Buddhist cultural icons, and the instillation of terror in Valley Hindus and Buddhists. Additionally, he had demolished numerous Buddhist temples and works of art.
Both Jonaraja and Hasan Ali claimed that Sikandar Shah Miri destroyed the temple in an effort to islamize society on the advice of Sufi preacher Mir Muhammad Hamadani. Jonaraja placed the blame on his chief-counsel Suhabhatta, a Brahman neo-convert who was thought to have led a reign of intense persecution against the local Hindus, while Hasan Ali specifically affirmed Sikandar’s own convictions in these.
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