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West Bengal is a state of India, located in the eastern part of the country along the Bay of Bengal in the southern region.It shares an International border with the country Bangladesh in the east, and Nepal and Bhutan in the north. It also shares borders with the Indian states of Odisha to the southwest, to the west by state Jharkhand and Bihar, Sikkim to the north and Assam to the northeast region. It is the fourth-most populous state and the fourteenth-largest state by area in India. Covering an area of 88,752 km2 (34,267 sq mi), it is also the eighth-most populous country subdivision of the world.
History of West Bengal
The capital of the state West Bengal is Kolkata, it is the third-largest metropolitan and seventh largest city by population in India. West Bengal established as separate India statehood on 26 January 1950. West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region and the coastal Sundarbans. The state’s main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with the Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority. The official language of the state includes Bengali and English. Malda Division, Burdwan Division, Jalpaiguri Division, Presidency Division, Medinipur Division are the five divisions.
West Bengal has a peculiar configuration and its breadth varies from 200 miles (320 km) at one point to hardly 10 miles (16 km) at another. Its roughly 1,350 mile (2,200 km) frontier with Bangladesh, neither natural nor well defined, is of strategic importance. Although in area West Bengal ranks as one of the smaller states of India, it is one of the largest in population. West Bengal may be broadly divided into two natural geographic divisions—the Gangetic Plain in the south and the sub-Himalayan and Himalayan area in the north. The Gangetic Plain contains fertile alluvial soil deposited by the Ganga River and its tributaries and distributaries. It also features numerous marshes and shallow lakes formed out of dead river courses.
River Ganga, which now runs through the narrow middle section of the state before entering Bangladesh, has been moving steadily eastward for centuries; only a small amount of its water now goes to the sea via the western distributaries, of which the principal one is the Hugli (Hooghly). The state capital, Kolkata, is situated on the Hugli in the southern portion of West Bengal. Another important river, the Damodar, joins the Hugli southwest of Kolkata. The elevation of the plain increases slowly toward the west, the rise is most marked near the Chota Nagpur plateau of neighbouring Jharkhand.
West Bengal’s climate is transitional between tropical wet-dry in the southern portions and humid subtropical in the north. Throughout West Bengal there is a pronounced seasonal disparity in rainfall. For example, Kolkata averages about 64 inches (1,625 mm) per year, of which an average of 13 inches (330 mm) falls in August and less than 1 inch (25 mm) in December. The state also is subject to considerable variability from year to year. In the sub-Himalayan region, rainfall is considerably greater.
The year may be broadly divided into three seasons, the hot and dry season (March to early June), with dry sultry days and frequent thunderstorms; the hot and wet season (mid-June to September), when rain-bearing monsoon winds blow from the southwest; and the cold (cool) season (October to February), when days are dry and clear and stable atmospheric conditions prevail. Average high temperatures at Kolkata range from about 80 °F (27 °C) in December and January to nearly 100 °F (38 °C) in April and May.
Basic Facts about West Bengal
- The capital of the state West Bengal is Kolkata.
- The present chief minister of West Bengal is Mamata Banarjee.
- The state West Bengal includes 23 Districts.
- In West Bengal there are 42 Lok Sabha seats and 16 Raj Sabha seats.
- It is the 14th largest state by its area of 88,752 kmsq.
- Three countries Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan shares its border with West Bengal.
- The 5 Indian states also shares border with West Bengal they are Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim and Assam.
- Chatim Tree is the state tree of West Bengal.
- Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari was the first Governor of West Bengal and the first female chief minister is Mamata Banerjee.
- West Bengal has 294 seats are in the legislature.
- Ilish is the state fish and white throated kingfisher is the state bird of West Bengal.
- In 14 October 1955 East Bengal renamed as East Pakistan.
- Subarnarekha river forms a boundary between Odisha and West Bengal.
GK Quiz on West Bengal
Q1. When was West Bengal established as a Separate Indian State?
- a) 26 January 1948
- b) 26 January 1949
- c) 26 January 1950
- d) 26 January 1952
Answer: [C] 26 January 1950
Q2.What is the Official Language of West Bengal?
c) Bengali & Hindi
d) Bengali & English
Answer: [D] Bengali & English
Q3.How many Countries do West Bengal share its border with?
a) 1 Country
b) 4 Countries
c) 2 Countries
d) 3 Countries
Answer: [D] 3 Countries
Q4.What is the area of West Bengal?
a) 88,752 km2
b) 90,752 km2
c) 85,752 km2
d) 83,752 km2
Answer: [A]88,752 km2
Q5.Which Country was known as East Bengal?
Answer: [A] Bangladesh
Q6.Capital of West Bengal is________.
Answer: [D] Kolkata
Q7.Who was the first Governor of West Bengal?
a) Dharma Vira
b) Kailash Nath Katju
c) Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari
d) Saiyid Nurul Hasan
Answer: [C] Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari
Q8.How many Lok Sabha Seats are in West Bengal?
a) 18 Seats
b) 16 Seats
c) 42 Seats
d) 46 Seats
Answer: [C] 42 Seats
Q9.How many Rajya Sabha Seats are in West Bengal?
a) 28 Seats
b) 14 Seats
c) 16 Seats
d) 18 Seats
Answer: [C] 16 Seats
Q10.Which is the Highest Peak in West Bengal?
b) Rachela Danda
Answer: [D] Sandakphu
Q11.How many Divisions are in West Bengal?
a) Three Divisions
b) Five Divisions
c) Four Divisions
d) Seven Divisions
Answer: [B] Five Divisions
Q12.How many districts are in West Bengal?
a) 21 Districts
b) 23 Districts
c) 19 Districts
d) 27 Districts
Answer: 23 Districts
Q13.Who is the First Female Chief Minister of West Bengal?
a) Aarti Mukherjee
b) Kanan Devi
c) Mamata Banerjee
d) Pratima Bandopadhyay
Answer: [C] Mamata Banerjee
Q14.Which is the Smallest District of West Bengal?
a) Jhargram District
b) Kolkata District
c) Howrah District
d) Kalimpong District
Answer: [B] Kolkata District
Q15.When did the Capital of India shift from Calcutta to New Delhi?
Answer: [B] 1911