Loose coupling is a method of connecting system or network components so that they depend on one another as little as possible. These components are also known as elements. The degree of direct knowledge that one element has about another is referred to as coupling. Reduce the possibility that modifications made to one element will result in unintended changes to other elements by using a loose coupling architecture. Limiting interconnections can make testing, maintenance, and troubleshooting processes easier while also assisting in isolating issues when things go wrong. It is simple to decompose a loosely linked system into discrete parts. The maximum number of element changes that can take place without hurting the system can be used to map the degree of coupling in a system. Examples of these modifications include adding, removing, renaming, reconfiguring, altering internal element properties, and reorganizing the connections between elements.
Hardware and software components are tightly coupled when they are interdependent on one another. In an integrated system, it is used to describe the existence or intended existence of connectivity between two or more computing instances. Strong coupling and high coupling are other names for tight coupling. Tight coupling is most often used in enterprise systems and applications that focus on the interconnectivity and inter-processing of two or more systems at once to deliver a seamless/integrated solution. The whole logic of a closely coupled system is typically spread among several hardware and software components, all of which must be functional and connected to deliver the business logic/process.
Loose Coupling in Java
Loose coupling is one of the most important features of a Java project. Java’s implementation of loose coupling demonstrates how to implement loose coupling in Java programs or projects. The project or software performs better the more loosely connected structures there are. A method or class has a loose coupling when they are nearly independent of one another. In other words, a structure becomes more tightly connected the more information one class or method knows about another class or method. The structure is more loosely connected if the classes or methods are less familiar with one another. The ideal condition of having classes that are well-encapsulated, and minimize references to one another, is loose coupling between software components. Classes that are well-encapsulated, reduce references to one another, and have loose coupling are ideal. We refer to this as loose coupling when an object obtains the object’s functionality from outside sources. In other words, the independence of things is indicated by loose coupling. Code that is loosely connected requires less upkeep and work. This was a drawback of tightly connected code that the loosely coupled code eliminated.
Consider that you have added two classes to your program: A and B. Volume is class A, and class B calculates a cylinder’s volume. You do not need to modify class B if you adjust the class A volume. In Java, this is referred to as loose coupling.
Tight Coupling in Java
It occurs when several classes are very reliant on one another. This situation happens when a class takes on too many duties or when a problem is divided across several classes rather than having its class. Tight coupling is the process through which one thing produces another for its use. Since the parent object will have more knowledge of the young item, the two things are referred to as being strongly connected. Tightly coupled is a word used to describe an object that is dependent on another and cannot be modified by anybody else. Let’s say you’ve created two classes. Volume is the first class, and the other class calculates the box’s volume. The Box class would be affected by any changes made to the Volume class. As a result, both classes are dependent on one another. Specifically, this circumstance is referred to as a tight connection.
Loose Coupling vs Tight Coupling
|Loose Coupling||Tight Coupling|
|Fewer dependencies and improved testability||Greater interdependence|
|In-between-time communication||Synchronised interaction|
|Decreased coordination||Improved coordination is offered|
|It is difficult to switch code between two classes.||It is simple to switch code between two objects|
|No idea of an interface||Adheres to GOF principles while interfacing|
|A decreased information flow||More data are being flown|
|Prone to change||It lacks the capacity to change.|
In a nutshell, loose coupling is superior to tight coupling in Java. Better code flexibility and reuse are provided. Changes to the code are fairly simple because the two classes are independent of one another. Additionally, it offers enhanced testability.