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Endogenic and exogenic forces are geomorphic processes that cause changes in the earth’s surface both internally and externally. The surface of the Earth is not perfectly flat because it is constantly being formed and deformed. The effect of exogenic and endogenic forces, often known as internal and external forces, respectively, is the primary cause of the earth’s crust being so uneven. The direction or source of the force acting on Earth is the main distinction between endogenic and exogenic forces (internal or external).
Endogenic Forces Meaning and Definition
Endo is a prefix that implies “in.” Endogenic forces are also known as internal forces since they are defined as pressure that originates from within the earth. Earthquakes, volcanism, faulting, folding, and other endogenic processes cause horizontal and vertical movements. As a result of radioactivity, primordial heat, tidal and rotational friction, and other factors, these forces were vital in the development of the earth’s crust.
Exogenic Forces Meaning and Definition
Exogenic forces, also referred to as external forces, are those that have their source in the atmosphere of the earth or get their energy from the planet’s exterior. Exogenic forces are also referred to as “land wearing forces” since they cause the land to deteriorate as a result of their activity. Examples include erosion, moon tides, and other exogenic processes.
Types of Endogenic Forces
Slow Movements (Diastrophic forces)
The movement of the solid components of the earth’s crust can generate catastrophic forces. Any process that modifies, elevates, or creates a portion of the earth’s crust is referred to as a “disaster”. Diastrophism consists of:
Orogenic or mountain-forming processes, like plate tectonics, operate tangentially to the earth’s surface. The Himalayan-Alpine orogeny is the best illustration of this. Two other categories for these processes are tension and compression. Fissures are caused by tension, or when force is acting away from a point in two directions. The best example of a tension-formed mountain is the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the United States. Compression or when a force is applied to a specific place causes folds to form. The Himalayas serve as the best example of a mountain formed through compression.
Movements that produce continents are known as epeirogenic or continent-forming movements. They are frequently referred to as radial movements since they move along the radius of the earth. They can move either upwards or downwards, toward the center. They generate landslides or depressions with little folding and long-wavelength undulations (wavy surfaces). The existing drainage division between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers in southern Africa is a well-known illustration of this sort. Epeirogenic motions can be further broken down into upward and downward velocities. Subsidence is the downward movement of a force. It is raised from the center when it is gone. Elevated beaches, terraces cut by the waves, sea caves, and other examples of uplift
At the edges of lithospheric plates, abrupt geomorphic movements are frequent. The pressure from the pushing and pulling of the mantle’s magma has made the plate boundaries highly unstable. Earthquakes and volcanoes are the two best examples of sudden movements that significantly alter a region in a short amount of time.
Types of Exogenic Forces
It can happen chemically by the rocks finally being broken down by water, carbon dioxide, living things, and acid rain or physically by the rocks breaking down as a result of pressure release, abrasion, animals, and plant development. Since there is little to no material mobility, weathering is an in-situ or on-site process. The worn material is carried farther away from the source by erosion.
The clay ingredients are carried away by natural forces including the wind, water, ice, and gravity. Erosion’s initial step is weathering.
- River terrain is a term used to describe a region with moving surface water.
- Wind: These terrains grow in arid, dry areas where the wind has a strong influence. Aeolian describes these vistas.
- These landscapes were shaped by Alpine glaciers.
- Waves are produced by waves at the edges of the continent.
- Karst: These landscapes are the result of groundwater in karst or limestone environments.
The progressive and quick mass motions, also known as slope movement or mass wasting, cause the shallow to deep columns of material and works to creep, flow, slide, and fall. The effects of weathering on the bedrock are also attracted to by gravity. Although it’s not necessary for weathering, mass movement certainly aids. Erosion does not apply to mass wasting because it is only governed by gravity and is unaffected by geomorphic forces like waves, currents, glaciers, water, or wind. Overly steep slopes, floods, earthquakes, and the eradication of vegetation are the causes.
Difference between Exogenic and Endogenic Forces
The causes of the earth’s numerous landforms, including hills, mountains, volcanoes, and more, make both endogenic and exogenic processes equally significant. The earth’s surface is shaped by these two geomorphic pressures through formation and deformation.
The following table illustrates the distinction between endogenic and exogenic forces, assisting candidates in creating a connection between the two processes.
|Endogenic Forces||Exogenic Forces|
|These are internal forces that are present in the Earth’s interior.||On the Earth’s surface, these are the external forces that are active.|
|The fact that these forces produce relief features on the Earth’s surface gives them the name “constructive forces.”||Because they can cause existing landforms to be destroyed by weathering and erosional processes, these forces are often called as “destructive forces.”|
|The heat generated by the interior of the earth is the primary energy source for forces that propel endogenic movements.||The principal exogenic processes include wasting, erosion, deposition, and weathering.|
|Different layers of the ground have different temperatures and pressures, which results in density variations and conventional currents. These density differences are caused by temperature gradients or geothermal gradients and pressure gradients.||Gradients—from higher levels to lower levels, from high pressure to low pressure, etc.—cause all motions on the earth’s surface as well as movements within the planet.|
|Endogenic movements are caused by the movement of the lithospheric plates (crust and upper mantle), which are driven by convection currents in the mantle.||The atmosphere, which is influenced by the sun’s primary energy as well as the gradient that tectonic forces create, provides the exogenic forces with their energy. Tectonic forces or earth movements caused by endogenic forces are primarily responsible for the slopes on the earth’s surface.|
|Only when endogenic forces create sudden harm do their effects become apparent.||Over the course of hundreds or millions of years, exogenic factors produce changes that are discernible.|
|Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are two examples.||Examples include winds, rivers, and glaciers|
Similarities between Endogenic and Exogenic Forces
- The fact that both endogenic and exogenic processes are unassisted, natural processes makes them similar.
- On the other hand, exogenic forces differ from endogenic forces in that they involve the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the biosphere.
- Includes weather processes and soil erosion removal.
- This implies that gravity and other phenomena that occur outside the earth’s core are caused by solar forces.
- This occurs outside the earth’s core.
Examples of Endogenic and Exogenic Forces
The terms internal and exterior factors also apply to endogenic and exogenic forces. All applicants preparing for the Prelims, Mains, and IAS Interview must extensively study this topic because it is a key idea in the UPSC Geography syllabus. The following is a list of illustrations of endogenic and exogenous processes:
|Examples of Endogenic Forces||Exogenic Forces Examples|
|Landslides||Tidal force of the Moon|
|Mountain formation||Sea waves|
Exogenic Forces – Interesting Facts
- The process is really slow.
- Smaller landforms are created by these processes acting on endogenous processes.
- The atmosphere and the sun provide the majority of the energy needed for these activities.
- The slope of the ground produced by the geological process serves as another source of energy for this process (slope of gradient).
- This process results in the formation of sediments and sedimentary rocks.
- All processes produced at the earth’s surface are included in this process.
- The main exogenic processes are weathering, erosion, transport, etc.
- This method is sometimes referred to be destructive.
- The sun’s rays directly cause exogenic processes.
Endogenic Forces – Interesting Facts
- The mechanism through which internal geologic forces act to create main landforms is known as endogenic processes.
- Changes in the elastic material’s physical and chemical properties inside the inner sphere are what generate the endogenic force that is involved in this process.
- These processes impact the crust both quickly and gradually over time.
- As a result of the relative movement of the crust throughout this process, continents and oceans as well as mountains, plateaus, and plains are the primary landforms that are created.
- Both the relief of the earth’s surface and the creation of significant mineral resources are products of endogenic processes.
- Other structural elements of the crust of the planet are kept in good condition thanks in large part to this mechanism.
- Earth’s interior heat is the primary energy source for the endogenic process
Endogenic and Exogenic Forces FAQs
Q1. What impacts do endogenic forces have on the earth?
Ans: The pressure inside the earth is an example of an internal force, often known as an endogenic force. In addition to other things like earthquakes, volcanism, faulting, and land uplift, these internal forces also generate vertical and horizontal motions.
Q2. What is an illustration of endogenic forces?
Ans: Earthquakes and the formation of mountains are two examples of endogenic forces. Exogenic forces include the erosion and tidal force of the moon.
Q3. Which forces are exogenic and endogenic?
Ans: Endogenic and exogenic forces are the two main geomorphic pressures that drive Earth to move and shape the planet’s crust or surface. The land’s surface is flat as a result of the ongoing development and deformation of landforms brought on by these internal and external stresses.
Q4. What distinguishes endogenic forces from exogenic forces?
Ans: In contrast to exogenic forces, endogenic forces originate from within Earth, and because they cause injury, their effects can be seen right away. The Earth’s surface is affected by exogenic forces, whose effects last hundreds or millions of years after their occurrence.
Q5. Which forces are exogenic?
Ans: Exogenic forces, sometimes referred to as external forces, are those that have their source in the atmosphere of the earth or get their energy from the planet’s exterior. Exogenic forces are sometimes referred to as “land wearing forces” because their actions cause the ground to erode.