Table of Contents
While examining history, we may have heard different treaties signed between the there then rulers, Britishers, etc after various wars like Mughal wars, First Anglo-Maratha War, etc. And in the modern period, between countries in terms of peace, river, boundary agreements, etc we may have come across treaties, protocols, or agreements. In this article, read about the details of the important treaties, that are to be remembered by students, for the curriculum as well as for the aspirants preparing for various competitive examinations. The brief data for the Treaties in the History of India is given as a PDF file for easy preparation.
What is meant by a Treaty?
A treaty is an agreement between sovereign countries or states and in some cases international organizations, which is binding at international law. According to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, it defines a ‘treaty’ is ‘an international agreement concluded between States in written form and governed by international law, whether embodied in a single instrument or in two or more related instruments and whatever its particular designation’.
A treaty is also known as an international agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms. The treaties can be either bilateral (between two States) or multilateral (between three or more States). Treaties may also include the creation of rights for individuals.
In India, treaty subjects are divided into three lists such as union, state, and concurrent. As of the normal legislation process, the subjects on the union list must be legislated by the Parliament of India. That of the subjects on the state list, the respective state legislature can legislate and for subjects on the concurrent list, both governments can make laws. However, to implement international treaties, Parliament can legislate on any subject and even override the general division of subject lists.
Important Treaties in the History of India
|Year||Treaty||The result of the treaty established|
|1639||Treaty of Asurar Ali||The boundary between the Mughal empire and the Ahom kingdom ending the Mughal’s efforts to conquer Ahom|
|1665||Treaty of Purandar||It was between Rajput ruler and commander of Mughal Empire Jai Singh I, and Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.|
|1752||Sangola Agreement||Maratha king became the mayor of the place and the Peshwa emerged as the real head of the Maratha federacy.|
|1757||Treaty of Alinagar||Between Siraj-ud-dwala and Robert Clive allowing the British to fortify Calcutta and to allow British goods to pass through Bengal without duties.|
|1763||Treaty of Paris||The French possessions in India, the settlements captured by the British were, restored by this treaty after the French being defeated by the British company|
|1765||Treaty of Allahabad||between Robert Clive and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II allowing the British Diwani Rights on behalf of the emperor from the eastern province of Bengal-Bihar-Orissa.|
|1769||Treaty of Madras||between the British and Hyder Ali of Mysore to end the first Mysore War. In this treaty both the parties agreed to return the areas won by each and to support each other in case of a third-party invasion.|
|1773||Treaty of Banaras||Between Hastings and Nawab of Oudh. Accordingly, Allahabad was handed over to Nawab.|
|1775||Treaty of Faizabad||Upon the death of shuja- ud- daula in 1775, a new treaty was concluded with his successor, according to which a regular brigade of the company’s troops was stationed in oudh|
|1775||Treaty of Surat||This was signed by Raghunath Rao with the Bombay government in the hope of help of English subsidiary troops in his flight for Peshwa|
|1776||Treaty of Purandar||Between the British and the Marathas bringing the first phase of the First Anglo-Maratha War to an end.|
|1779||Treaty of Wadgaon||Between the British and the Marathas bringing the second phase of the First Anglo-Maratha War to an end.|
|1782||Treaty of Salbai||Between the British and the Marathas bringing the First Anglo-Maratha War to an end.|
|1784||Treaty of Mangalore||between Tipu Sultan and Lord Macartney, Governor of Madras, British East India Company on 11 March 1784. Signed in Mangalore and the result was it put an end to the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
Concluded the mutual restriction of conquests and liberation of prisoners
|1792||Treaty of Seringapatam||Between the British i.e., Lord Cornwallis, the Marathas, Hyderabad, and Tipu Sultan to end the Third Anglo-Mysore War. This resulted in allowing the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad, and the British to annex almost half of Tipu Sultan’s territories.|
|1802||Treaty of Bassein||Signed by Baji Rao II with the English after his defeat with the Holkar.|
|1805||Treaty of Deogaon||Holkar gave up claims on the areas of the company’s allies.|
|1809||Treaty of Amritsar||Treaty was signed between Ranjith Singh and the English Company, which fixed the river Sutlej as the boundary of Ranjith Singh’s authority.|
|1816||Treaty of Sagauli||The Nepal ruler gave up the claims to Sikkim after the defeat from the English. And, received a resident at Khatmandu.|
|1846||Treaty of Lahore||The treaty marked the end of the First Anglo-Sikh War. And was between Governor-General Henry Hardinge for the British and members of Lahore Darbar representing the young Maharaja Duleep Singh Bahadur.|
|1846||Treaty of Amritsar||British East India Company sold Kashmir to Maharaja Gulab Singh, whose dynasty ruled till 1947 when Maharaja Hari Singh acceded Kashmir to India.|
|1846||Treaty of Bhirowal||As a result of this treaty, Rani Jindan was deprived of all powers and the administration was to be carried on by a ‘ council of regency ‘ composed of eight leading chiefs under the virtual dictatorship of the British resident.|
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Lists of Treaties signed in the History of India under each Empire
Treaties of the Kingdom of Mysore
Between the Sultanate of Mysore and the East India Company.
- Treaty of Seringapatam (Srirangapatinam or Srirangapatna),
It was signed 18 March 1792, ended the lodar. Its signatories included Lord Cornwallis on behalf of the British East India Company, representatives of the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Maratha Empire, and Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore.
- Treaty of Madras
This was a peace agreement signed on 4 April 1769 between Mysore and the British (Lord Verelst) East India Company. The treaty brought an end to the First Anglo-Mysore War.
The outbreak of the Second Anglo-Mysore War a decade later was a result of this, that is Hyder felt the above agreement was broken when he didn’t receive any help when Mysore went to war with the Marathas in 1771.
- Treaty of Mangalore
Signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784.
Treaties of the Mughal Empire
- The Treaty of Ghilajharighat
Tipam was signed between the Ahoms and the Mughal forces led by Ram Singh and Mir Jumla on January 23, 1663.
- The Treaty of Purandar
Signed on June 11, 1665, between the Jai Singh I, who was commander of the Mughal Empire, and Maratha Shivaji. Shivaji was forced to sign the agreement after Jai Singh attacked Purandar fort.
- Treaty of Alinagar was
Was signed on 9 February 1757 between Robert Clive of the British East India Company and the Nawab of Bengal, Mirza Muhammad Siraj Ud Daula.
- Treaty of Allahabad
This Treaty marked the political and constitutional engagement and the start of British rule in India.
Signed on 12 August 1765, and the treaty was handwritten by I’tisam-ud-Din, a Bengali Muslim scribe and diplomat to the Mughal Empire. This was signed between the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, and Robert Clive, of the East India Company, in the sequel of the Battle of Buxar on 23 October 1764.
- Treaty of Asurar Ali
Signed between the Mughal faujdar Allah Yar Khan and the Ahom general Momai Tamuli Borbarua in early February 1639. The treaty made a certain Ahom victory over the Mughals at Duimunisila in November 1638.
Treaties of the Maratha Empire
- Treaty of Surat (6 March 1775)
Raghunathrao, one of the claimants to the throne of the Peshwa in the thought of being himself restored to Poona, agreed to cede Salsette and Bassein Fort to the English.
- Treaty of Purandar (or Treaty of Purandhar)
It was a doctrine signed on 1 March 1776 by the Peshwa of the Marathi Empire and the British East India Company’s Supreme Council of Bengal in Calcutta
- Treaty of Purandar
Signed on June 11, 1665, between the Jai Singh I, and Maratha Shivaji.
- Treaty of Salbai
Signed on 17 May 1782, by Maratha Empire and the British East India Company after long negotiations to settle the outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War. It was signed between Warren Hastings and Mahadaji Scindia.
- Treaty of Seringapatam (Srirangapatinam or Srirangapatna)
Treaties of the Nawab of the Carnatic
- Carnatic Treaty
Signed on 26 July 1801. It is one of the treaties by which the British Empire procured its rule over the Indian subcontinent.
- Treaty of Pondicherry
Signed in 1754 bringing an end to the Second Carnatic War. And the picked British candidate Mohamed Ali Khan Walajan was recognized as the Nawab of the Carnatic.
Treaties of the Sikh Empire
- Treaty of Amritsar
Executed by the British East India Company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu after the First Anglo-Sikh War. This instituted the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir under the domain of the British Indian Empire.
- Treaty of Amritsar (1809)
This was an agreement between the British East India Company and Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh leader who founded the Sikh empire. It was an agreement between Charles T. Metcalfe and Maharaja Ranjit Singh
- Treaty of Lahore
This peace treaty of 9 March 1846, marked the end of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
List of French India Treaties
- International Convention concerning the Use of Broadcasting in the Cause of Peace
- International Agreement for the suppression of the White Slave Traffic
- Protocol for Limiting and Regulating the Cultivation of the Poppy Plant, the Production of, International and Wholesale Trade in, and Use of Opium
- Protocol Bringing under International Control Drugs outside the Scope of the Convention of 13 July 1931 for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs
List of Portuguese India Treaties
- Brussels Collision Convention
- Brussels Convention on Assistance and Salvage at Sea
- Customs Convention on the Temporary Importation of Private Road Vehicles
- Geneva Convention on Road Traffic
British India Treaties
- Treaty of Punakha
- 1946 Lake Success Protocol
- Equality of Treatment (Accident Compensation) Convention, 1925
- Geneva Protocol
Treaties of the Dominion of India
- General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
- First Geneva Convention
- Second Geneva Convention
- Labour Inspection Convention, 1947
- Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the Specialized Agencies
Treaties of Sikkim
- Convention of Calcutta
- Simla Convention
- Treaty of Titalia
- Treaty of Tumlong
Bilateral treaties of India
- Indo-Bangla Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Peace
- Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation
- Indo-Sri Lanka Accord
- Sirima–Gandhi Pact
- Sirima–Shastri Pact
- Treaty of Peace Between Japan and India
Treaties between India–Pakistan
- Agra summit
- Delhi Agreement
- Indus Waters Treaty
- Pakistani Instrument of Surrender
- Protocol on Visits to Religious Shrines 1974
- Lahore Declaration
- Liaquat–Nehru Pact
Peace treaties of India
- Pakistani Instrument of Surrender
- Karachi Agreement
- Tashkent Declaration
- Treaty of Peace Between Japan and India
- Treaty of Peace with Italy, 1947
Free PDF Download for the Treaties in the History of India
History of India and the states, rulers or dynasties, or empires of each era is very much important but difficult to memorize the names, years, places of wars. So, we have provided notes on Indian History, follow our page for more topic-wise articles and summary notes PDF.