Kerala Parekshwa Bhawan conducts the Kerala -TET exams. Kerala Teachers Eligibility Test is to assess the quality of teaching aspirants for Lower Primary (LP), Upper Primary (UP) and High School Classes in Kerala. Candidates should score the cut-off mark in the Kerala TET examination to get consideration for the teaching positions in the schools. In all four categories of K-TET exams, Paper-1 is to test the candidate’s aptitude in teaching and their willingness or readiness for the job. So we are here discussing the Kerala TET Psychology notes suitable for all four categories in Kerala Teachers Eligibility Test (K-TET).
Kerala TET Psychology Notes
In Kerala Teachers Eligibility Test (K-TET) or any other Teachers Eligibility Test, the Paper-1 will be common for all graduates. Paper-1 mainly discuss topics like Child/ Student Psychology, Various Learning Theories, Teaching Aptitude, etc. Today as part of the Kerala TET Psychology notes we are discussing the Child Development, Principles of Child Development, Stages of Cognitive Development (Piaget), Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development, etc
As we grow both in quantitative and qualitative terms, some sort of development occurs to us. The optimum development of a child is necessary for society. For the upbringing of such a group, we need a well-established learning system which needs learned teachers. The study of being a teacher or the process of teaching is called pedagogy or instructive strategies. The six areas of learning and development which make up the skills, knowledge and experiences are:
- Communication, Language, and Literacy
- Knowledge and Understanding of the World
- Creative Development
- Personal, Social, and Emotional Development
- Problem Solving, Reasoning and Numeracy, and
- Physical Development
Child Development: Concept of Development and Stages
Growth is the quantitative changes in size which include physical changes in height, weight, size, internal organs, etc. In contrast to this, the development is the qualitative changes that happen in an individual simultaneous with the quantitative change. The biological and psychological changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy can be referred to as the Child development. These changes may be influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life. The development changes can happen either due to genetically controlled processes (called maturation) or because of environmental factors and learning. But in most cases, the development results because of the interactions between these two factors. Psychologists define each stage of this development with a certain span and characteristics.
|Age Groups||Development Stages||Schooling Stage|
|Birth to 2 years||Infancy|
|2 years to 6 years||Early Childhood||Pre-Primary|
|6 years to 12 years||Later Childhood||Primary|
|12 years to 18 years||Adolescence||Secondary and senior secondary|
|18 years to 40 years||Young Adulthood|
|40 years to 65 years||Adulthood|
|Over 65 years||Mature Adulthood|
- The Development of Concepts
|Development Stage||Age Groups||Characteristic|
|1||Birth to 2 years||Control of sensory-motor. A little experience and hence no concept formation|
|2||2 years to 4 years||Acquires experience and hence extracts concepts from the same|
|3||4 years to 7 years||Acquires experience about complex situations and makes perceptual comparisons|
|4||7 years to 11 years||Acquires ideas and master thought operations at the concrete level|
|5||11 years and above||Masters thought operations at the abstract level|
Principles of Development
The four principles of human development are:
From conception to death development is a continuous process. From the early stages of life, the development occurs not only in the body size, and functioning but also behaviour. Even after reaching maturity period, the development doe not end it just continues. The changes continue until death ends the life cycle.
The development is sequential or orderly. Both humans and animals follow a development pattern which is peculiar for them. In prenatal development there is a genetic sequence, appearing at fixed intervals with certain characteristics.
- Generality to Specificity
The development takes from a general path to specific ones as it progresses. The fetus moves its whole body but incapable of making specific responses -Infants wave their arms randomly. They can make such specific responses as reaching out for an object near them.
The tempo of development is not even. Individuals differ in the rate of growth and development. Boys and girls have different development rates. Each part of the body has its own particular rate of growth. Development does not occur at an even pace. There are periods of great intensity and equilibrium and there are periods of imbalance. The development achieves a plateau and this may occur at any level or between levels.
Principles of Child Development
The Principles of Child Development is marked by three interrelated processes, and they are:
Principles of Differentiation and Integration
Let’s try to understand these two concepts through this example. The fertilization of the ovum with the sperm
results in a single cell, which is called a zygote. The zygote then starts multiplying at a very fast rate into cells that are all of the same kind. These cells then acquire different characteristics and form different tissues like nerves, bones, blood and so forth; each having a special function. These different tissues subsequently- coordinate with each other to form complex systems like the digestive, circulatory and respiratory systems. When the similar cells of the zygote change to form different tissues like nerves and bones, the process is differentiation.
Differentiation means that development proceeds from simple to complex, from general to specific. When different tissues coordinate to form a system, the process is called integration. Integration means the coordination of various parts to form an increasingly complex structure. It also refers to the coordination of different behaviour patterns that result in a higher level of complexity. In the infancy period, a kid used to smile at everybody, but as it grows it will differentiate his/ her mother’s face from others. Then the child integrates the mother’s face with her smell, touch, and all aspects of that individual.
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget, a swiss biologist is regarded as one of the pioneers in Child Psychology studies. Piaget believes that a person understands whatever information fits into his established view of the world. When that information doesn’t fit, he/ she must re-examine and adjust his thinking to accommodate the new information. He introduced four stages of cognitive development, they are as follows:
- Schemes/ Cognitive Structures
|Sensorimotor||Birth to 18–24 months old||Differentiate self from objects,
recognizes self as an agent of action and begins to act intentionally
realises that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense
|Pre-operational||2 to 7 years old||Symbolic thought
learns to use language to represent objects by images and words
thinking is still egocentric
classifies objects by a single feature
|Concrete operational||7 to 11 years old||Operational thought
can think logically about objects and events
achieves conservation of number, mass, and weight
classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size
|Formal operational||Adolescence to adulthood||Abstract concepts
can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypothesis systematically
becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems
Schemes, assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration
According to Piaget Schemes are cognitive structure or behaviour pattern of adults and children which they use in dealing with the environment objects. As one develops pattern will also change and will get entangled with other p[atterns and results in a more complex pattern. These various patterns with their contents form the basic structure of the human mind.
Assimilation is the process of using or transforming the environment so that it can be placed in preexisting cognitive structures. Accommodation is the process of changing cognitive structures in order to accept something from the environment. Both processes are used simultaneously and alternately throughout life. An example of assimilation would be when an infant uses a sucking schema that was developed by sucking on a small bottle when attempting to suck on a larger bottle. An example of accommodation would be when the child needs to modify a sucking schema developed by sucking on a pacifier to one that would be successful for sucking on a bottle.
The structures changes from one form to another by the process of equilibration-maintaining balance between the child and his changing environment. All children try to strike a balance between assimilation and accommodation, which is achieved through a mechanism called equilibration. Equilibration helps explain how children are able to move from one stage of thought into the next.
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
Kohlberg modified Jean Piaget’s work to form a theory that explained the development of moral reasoning. Kohlberg identified three distinct levels of moral reasoning: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional, with each of these levels, with two sub-stages. An individual can only pass through these levels in the listed order. Each new stage replaces the reasoning typical of the earlier stage. Not everyone achieves all the stages.
Level 1: Pre-conventional morality
At this level (most nine-year-olds and younger, some over nine), one doesn’t have a personal code of morality. Instead, his/ her moral code is shaped by the standards of adults and the consequences of following or breaking their rules.
Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment: Children sees rules as fixed and absolute. As a means to avoid punishment, they will obey the rules.
Stage 2: Individualism and Exchange: Children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints.
Level 2: Conventional morality
At this level (most adolescents and adults), individuals begin to internalize the moral standards of valued adult role models.
Stage 3: Interpersonal Relationships: The child is good in order to be seen as being a good person by others. Moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and rules, good boy- good girl orientation.
Stage 4: Maintaining Social Order: Consider society as a whole when making judgements. Follows the rules to maintain the law and order and to show respect towards the authority.
Level 3: Post-Conventional morality
Individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice.
Stage 5: Social Contract and Individual Rights: The child becomes aware that while rules might exist for the good of the greatest number, there are times when they will work against the interest of particular individuals.
Stage 6: Universal Principles: People at this stage have developed their own set of moral guidelines which may or may not fit the law. The principles apply to everyone.
- The dilemmas are artificial, they lack any sort of ecological validity.
- Kohlberg’s theory overemphasizes the concept of Justice when making moral choices.
- Kohlberg’s theory and studies based on what was prevailed in western society. Eastern cultures may have different outlooks which he does not account for.
Kerala TET Psychology Notes Pdf
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