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India’s ancient culture is something which gives priority to teachers after god. Teaching is considered not only a noble profession but also considered as a heavenly job. Are you interested in giving your service into the teaching field? Then you have to clear the Centre Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET) for proving your worth for students. One of the important areas that is often asked in CTET examination is the theories regarding the child development. Since the teacher is the prime factor in developing a child into a complete human being, the syllabus and curriculum of the CTET is stubborn in asking the child development theories in CTET exam. Let us look into the study notes important theories regarding the child development for CTET exam 2020-2021
Humans have a particular nature of adaptation. He/ she is entitled to interact with the society and thus by incorporating different changes in the behaviour as well as the mind. The development of a child is often carried out by different theorists through different theories. Generally, the phases of child development (Human Development according to the time period can be broadly classified as below.
|Pre-natal Period||From conception to 280 days/ birth|
|Infancy||Birth to 3 years|
|Early childhood||3 to 6 years|
|Later Childhood||6 to 12 years|
|Adolescence||12 to 19 years|
|Adulthood||19 to 60 years|
|Old age||Beyond 60 years|
The development of the different aspects will be different in different periods. Some developments will be faster in some periods and some developments will be lesser and some may be absent in some periods. Let us look into the general areas where the development of a child (human) takes place.
- Physical and Motor Development
- Emotional Development
- Intellectual development/ Cognitive Development
- Social and Moral Development
- Language Development
Physical and Motor Development
Physical and motor development is meant by something related to the phase of the human body acquiring its final shape. There will be a change in the height, weight and size and locomotive functions also take place. The child starts to walk then runs and so on…This phase also includes the intrinsic physical development also like the voice change in girls and boys and the improvements of genital organs etc. This will be happening in different time periods at different rates.
There will be changes in the emotional quotient of the child in different periods. Especially greater will be in the adolescence time. It is because of the fact that adolescence is considered as the period of stress and strain. The period is marked for heightening of emotions like anxiety, fear, love, anger etc. The emotional development will be different in different time periods. It will be different for different children also. Some may be highly emotional and emotional dependent while others will be having a least emotional quotient. The development will be different in different times.
Intellectual Development/ Cognitive Development
The intellectual development or cognitive development is always misunderstood by most of the candidates. Intellectualism doesn’t mean that you should be able to beat Shakuntala Devi in calculation or Albert Einstein in theory formulation. They are considered as highly intellectual and the degree will be changed thus. Intellectual means when some person is able to learn or adapt an analytical decision or realisation from past experience or outside society. If you can understand hot water will burn after an incident, the realisation that you encounter is your intellectual development.
Jean Piaget Theory
This is one of the greatest theories that revolves around the cognitive development phase. The theorist proposes the importance of maturation and the provision of a stimulating environment for children to explore. The theory proposes different stages of cognitive development such as
|Stage||Time Period and Specification|
|Sensory Motor Stage||Compound word that combines “senses” and “motor skills”
Birth to 2 years
|Pre-operational||This period happens before operational thought is developed.
2 to 7 years
|Concrete Operational||Concrete means real or tangible. With this period starts logical thinking
7 to 12 years
|Formal Operational||In this period the abstract though starts to develop.
12 years and over
|Emotional Development (cognitive equilibrium)|
Social development is something acquainted with when he/she starts to encounter and adapt with the society. Some may develop more friends and some least. Some will become introvert and some others will be extrovert. Some will be more influenced by the social constraints and some may not. Some will challenge the social norms and regulation and start a rebellion life and some will be having an obedient or fearful social being. This all thing will be happening in this phase and the phase is carried out in different time periods.
This development is particularly having an influence on humans. If a cat is put in a lion cage, if the lion doesn’t eat the cat after a few days the cat will sound like the intrinsic sound of the cat itself. But a child is placed or allowed to live a constraint life in a cat cage without having an interaction with humans. The child will sound like the cat and will not be able to speak like a human. This is the language development capability of the child. The child will try to pronounce the language they hear since they adapt it.
Lev Vygotsky Theory
One of the major important theories regarding the language or speech development is lev vyogotsky theory. His theory classifies language development into the following phases
|Stage||Period and Specification|
|Primitive speech stage||Birth to 2 years
The beginning of speech learning
|Naïve Psychological stage||2 to 4 years
Learn the relation between words and objects.
|Egocentric or private speech||4 to 7 years
Thinking stage. Speak aloud task performance etc
|Ingrowth or inner speech stage||8 years
Inner speech is the speech of mind. Solve problems in mind using inner language and speech
The important theories regarding child development have been said above. There are a lot of theories regarding child development and it is spread as an ocean and for a minimalistic competitive examination the aspirants have to mainly concentrate on the above facts for sure. Prepare very well for the exam with the help of Entri. Keep studying, keep winning.