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What Are Vaccines? Vaccines are made to stand as a protection for the human body against various viruses and bacteria. It is a biological compound that is also called immunizations due to its property of taking advantage of our natural immune structure’s property to fight infectious illness. Check here to know about the Important Vaccines and their inventors.
Immune System in the human body act as a machine equipped to attack bacteria or viruses or any foreign particle that attacks the basic functioning of the human body. It is made up of organs, tissues and many other cells. They work together and generate power enough to protect the body from illness caused by the foreign particles. They are intended to build defenses against specific viruses before you even get them and assist you to stay strong. Bacterial and viral cells have labels called antigens. Antigens are able of producing an immune reply in the body. Each type of bacteria or virus has various antigens.
List of Vaccines and their Inventors 2021
Corona Virus/ Covid 19
Covid 19 or coronavirus is an infectious virus causing respiratory illness and breathing difficulty, gradually leading the patient to death if the patient holds other serious illnesses and weak immunity system. It is important not to let the virus spread. Thus, the patients are advised to be in isolation and every humankind is encouraged to stay out of contact and wear proper masks to protect themselves from the virus.
Corona Virus hit the 21st-century lives in its dreadful phases. Many live were lost and brought he lives in trouble. The hospitals were filled with the struggle to breathe and live. Thus, the continuous process to bring an effective vaccine was put forward from the initial stage. Various vaccines which are found effective and authenticated are produced from different countries. Still, researches are going on and the pandemic has not left its way from causing death. Still, the plight follows and people are rushing to gain vaccines. There is a real need to vaccine yourself to help the whole world breathe.
Details of Vaccines for Corona Virus
|Vaccine, developers/sponsors||Doses, interval||Country of origin|
|Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine||2 doses
|United Kingdom, Sweden|
|Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine||2 doses
|Germany, United States|
|Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine||1 dose||United States, Netherlands|
|Moderna COVID-19 vaccine (Spikevax)||2 doses
|Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine (Gam-COVID-Vac)||2 doses
Bharat Biotech, Indian Council of Medical Research
Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology
CanSino Biologics, Beijing Institute of Biotechnology of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences
Sinopharm: Wuhan Institute of Biological Products
Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical Co. Ltd.
The Chumakov Centre at the Russian Academy of Sciences
Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems
|Minhai COVID-19 vaccine (KCONVAC)
Minhai Biotechnology Co., Shenzhen Kangtai Biological Products Co. Ltd.
|COVIran Barakat (COVIRAN)
Barakat Pharmaceutical Group, Shifa Pharmed Industrial Group
|Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences COVID-19 vaccine (Covidful)
Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Biology
Important Vaccines and their inventors
|Cholera||Vibrio Cholerae||1) Monovalent vaccine based on formalin
2) Bivalent vaccine based on V. cholerae serogroups O1
|Pneumococcal Pneumonia||Streptococcus pneumoniae||1) Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
2) Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
|Typhoid Fever||Salmonella typhi||1) Injectable polysaccharide vaccine based on the purified Vi antigen for persons aged two years and above
2) Live attenuated oral Ty21a vaccine in capsule formulation for those over five years of age
|Almroth Edward Wright|
|Meningococcal meningitis||Neisseria meningitidis||1) Polysaccharide vaccines are available in bivalent (A, C), trivalent (A, C, W135), & quadrivalent (A, C, W135, Y) formulations
2) Conjugate vaccines are available in monovalent (A or C), quadrivalent (A, C, W135, Y), or combination (serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae type b) formulations.
|Tuberculosis||Mycobacterium Tuberculosis||Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG)||Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin|
|Epiglottitis, meningitis, pneumonia||Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib)||Hib Vaccine||David Smith|
|Q Fever||Coxiella burnetii||Q fever vaccine(doxycycline, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin & hydroxychloroquine)||H.R. Cox and Gordon Davis|
|Diphtheria||Corynebacterium diphtheriae||DTP vaccine or pentavalent vaccine||Behring|
|Tetanus||Clostridium tetani||tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccines (TTCV)||Emil von Behring|
|Whooping Cough||Bordetella pertussis||DPT Vaccine||Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou|
|Anthrax||Bacillus anthracis||Anthrax Vaccines||Louis Pasteur|
|Leprosy||Bacterium Mycobacterium leprae||Dapsone, rifampicin||Guy Henry Faget|
Viral Diseases and its Vaccines
Check here for the list of vaccine inventors and most important vaccines list from the history to the present.
|Hepatitis A||Hepatitis A||Hepatitis A vaccine (Such as Havrix, Avaxim etc.,)||Steven M. Feinstone|
|Hepatitis B||Hepatitis B||Hepatitis B Vaccine (such as Sci-B-vac, Pentabio. etc,)||Dr Blumberg won|
|Hepatitis E||Hepatitis E||Hepatitis E Vaccine (such as Hecolin)||–|
|Cervical cancer, Genital warts, anogenital cancers||Human Papillomavirus (HPV)||Bivalent & Quadrivalent vaccine||Ian Frazer|
|Influenza||Influenza Virus||Influenza Vaccine (such as Flumist, Flubio etc.,)||Jonas Salk & Thomas Francis|
|Japanese encephalitis||Japanese encephalitis virus||1) Inactivated mouse brain-based vaccines
2) Inactivated cell-based vaccines
3) Live attenuated vaccines &
4) Live recombinant vaccines.
|Measles||Measles virus||measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) Vaccine, measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) Vaccine||Maurice Hilleman|
|Mumps||Mumps Virus||measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) Vaccine, measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) Vaccine||Maurice Hilleman|
|Poliomyelitis||Poliovirus||1) Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV)
2) Trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV)
3) Bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV)
4) Monovalent oral polio vaccines (mOPV1, mOPV2 and mOPV3)
|Dr Jonas Salk|
|Rabies||Rabies Virus||Human diploid cell rabies vaccine (H.D.C.V.)||Louis Pasteur & Emile Roux|
|Rota viral gastroenteritis||Rotavirus||Rotavirus Vaccine (RotaTeq, Rotarix)||Paul A. Offit|
|Rubella||Rubella virus||measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) Vaccine, measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) Vaccine||Maurice Hilleman|
|Tick-borne encephalitis||Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)||1) FSME-Immun
3) TBE-Moscow &
|Chickenpox, Shingles||Varicella zoster virus||1) Varicella vaccine
2) Shingles vaccine
3) MMRV vaccine
|Smallpox||Variola Virus||Smallpox Vaccine (Dryvax, Imvanex)||Edward Jenner|
|Yellow Fever||Yellow Fever Virus||Yellow Fever Vaccine (YF-VAX)||Max Theiler|
Vaccines and Year of Invention
|Vaccines||Year of Invention|
|Diphtheria and Tetanus||1891|
|Oral Polio Vaccine||1955|
|Epiglottitis, meningitis, pneumonia||–––|
|Whooping Cough||More than 100 years ago|
|Cervical cancer, Genital warts, anogenital cancers||2006|
|Diphtheria and Tetanus||1891|
|Oral Polio Vaccine||1955|
How Does Vaccines Work?
Vaccines usually act as a stimulation for the antibody memory to the viruses and bacteria. Even without letting them affect the human body, the vaccine helps the immune system to memorize the virus variations to fight against it in case it enters.
The appearance of a vaccine in the body makes the immune system design antibodies upon the invading antigens. Usually, it takes more than one vaccine to attain a complete response. Most are done in a group of vaccines that are provided at particular intervals of time.
An antigen can be used in the following ways:
- Attenuated live viruses — Vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella and chickenpox vaccines.
- Inactivated viruses — polio vaccine.
- Recombinant— The human papillomavirus (HPV)
- Conjugate — Hib vaccine is an example of a conjugate.
- Subunit — The flu shot is a subunit vaccine.
- Toxiod — The tetanus and diphtheria vaccines.
Ways to Take a Vaccine
- Injected (most common)
Is Vaccination Important?
Ofcourse! it is! Neglecting vaccination is pure ignorance!
The human body is prone to many diseases and viruses. The human body needs effective coverage and strength to withstand the foreign particle that might enter into her/his body throughout life. The already severe diseases have a developed set of vaccines which are instructed to attain from a very young age. Such vaccines are considered extremely necessary and important for a healthy life towards the future of a child.
Likewise, many situational vaccines are developed just like the 21st-century vaccine against the coronavirus. Such vaccines are considered mandatory for all individuals as the disease is deadly and devastating. It isn’t a matter of a single person, but the whole world. By vaccinating you save your life as well as the lives of many.
History Behind Vaccination
There was the massive attack of smallpox centuries back with its devastating effects upon humankind. From there the journey of vaccines begin.
Tracing an authentic history, we see Edward Jenner’s innovations, started with his successful 1796 use of cowpox material to build resistance to smallpox, quickly made the practice popular. His method supported medical and technological advances over the next 200 years, and ultimately ended in the eradication of smallpox. Louis Pasteur’s 1885 rabies vaccine was the next to make an impression on human disease. Later vaccines against tetanus, anthrax, diphtheria, cholera, plague, typhoid, tuberculosis, and more were produced through the 1930s.
The middle of the 20th century was an active time for vaccine research and the development of vaccines for polio. Researchers targeted other usual childhood diseases such as measles, mumps, and rubella etc. First Laboratory Vaccine was seen in 1879 with Louis Pasteur. He produced the first vaccine for chicken cholera. Cholera had swept the lives of many through Europe and worldwide. It had its gigantic impact and developing a vaccine was an utter necessity.
Let’s Get Vaccinated!
Make sure to be a part of vaccinating world. As diseases are striking up with its huge impact upon humankind, it is very important to be healthy and keep yourself out of danger. If you are not vaccinated yet for the Covid 19 or your newborn baby is not taken for the proper vaccination schedule. Rethink! Get vaccinated soon for a better future!