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UGC NET Exam is the exam conducted by NTA that examines the eligibility of Indian Nationals for ‘Assistant Professor’ or for ‘Junior Research Fellowship and Assistant Professor’ both in Indian Universities and Colleges.
People Development and Environment is a vital part of the UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2020-21. With good preparation and Environment notes for UGC NET PDF, you can effortlessly attempt all the questions in the Paper-I exam.
People and Environment Syllabus for UGC NET Exam
Topics that are described as per the syllabus for UGC NET Exam Paper 1:
- Development and environment
- Millennium development goals
- Sustainable development goals
- Human and environment interaction
- Anthropogenic activities
- Impacts on environment
- Environmental issues
- Local, Regional, and Global
- Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Waste (solid, liquid, biomedical, hazardous, electronic)
- Climate change and its Socio-Economic and Political dimensions
- Impacts of pollutants on human health
UGC NET People and Environment Notes
Environment, Development, and Sustainability
Sustainable Development is the development that meets the requirements of the present without concerning the future generations to meet their own needs. It is established on the three pillars of sustainability: economic, environmental, and social sustainability.
The UN General Assembly in its 70th session adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 17 goals, 169 targets. It came into power from 1st January 2016, having 2030 as its deadline to reach the target. Though it was not legally crucial it gave prospects to the countries to reorient their domestic spending during the next fifteen years. The countries are envisioned to own sustainable development policies, plans, and programs. They would be accountable for executing the goals and targets and study at the national level which demands quality, availability, and timely data.
The 17 Goals are:
- No poverty
- Zero hunger
- Good health and well being
- Quality education
- Gender Equality
- Clean water and sanitation
- Affordable and clean energy
- Decent work and economic growth
- Industry innovation and infrastructure
- Reduced inequality
- Sustainable cities and communities
- Sustainable consumption and production
- Climate action
- Life below water
- Life on land
- Peace, justice, and strong institutions
- Partnerships for the goals
In India, Prime Minister Sh. Narendra Modi with his High-Level Steering Committee occasionally studies and purifies the National Indicator Framework (NIF) to observe the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Human and Environment Interaction
Environment and people are interrelated. The environment provides us food, water, fuel, medicines, building materials, etc. Though science and technology have developed and because of that we have added a lot but it also presented pollution and damaged the environment. The result of this is also on human beings like health-related issues and socio-economic development.
People can live and grow when they have a good climatic condition with available clean water, fertile soil, etc. Whereas, it becomes hard for people to persist in a very hot climate, limited water resources, and infertile land.
We also get concerned about natural calamities like floods, drought, and earthquakes which hurt agriculture, properties, homes and water sources, pipelines, etc.
This leads to dislocation of people, loss of life, destruction, etc. Waterborne diseases, water contamination can be caused due to damage to water sources.
Another change that is impacting our environment is due to industrialization. We use different types of things to do our things which have raised the human impact on the environment.
Though the relationship between human activities and the environment can be grouped into major two types of activities.
The presence of harmful substances harms the environment and human health. It is learned as pollution and it causes different environmental issues. It can appear in diverse forms like,
- Air pollution,
- Water pollution,
- Soil pollution,
- Noise pollution.
Air pollution directs to the addition of pollutants into the air that is harmful to human beings and the planet as a whole.
Origins Of Air Pollution:
The pollutants are accumulated in the atmosphere by the following sources:
- Electrical Power Plants
- Industrial Processes
- Heating Plants
Water pollution is the contamination of pollutants in water bodies like lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers, and groundwater by very often by human activities which directs to harmful effects.
Origins Of Water Pollution
- Natural Sources: These contain decomposition, the composition of plants and animals, volcanic eruptions, coastal, cliff erosion, landslides, and soil erosion.
- Anthropogenic Sources: These contain industry, urban, agricultural and cultural sources.
- Industrial pollutants: Contains heavy metals-boron, arsenic, zinc, lead, mercury.
- Agricultural pollutants: Insecticides, pesticides, chemical fertilizers, weeds, plants remain.
- Natural pollutants: Volcanic dust, debris generated by landslides, and decomposed organic matter.
- Physical pollutants: Oil, grease, dissolved and suspended solids, and volcanic dust.
Effects of Water Pollution
- Dying aquatic (water) animals.
- Irrigation by polluted water impacts plants resulting in yellowish coloration and defoliation.
- Tempest of food chains.
- Diseases like -hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, jaundice, diarrhea, and skin diseases.
- Ecosystem destruction.
Land pollution is the devastation of the earth’s land surfaces, directly or indirectly as a consequence of man’s activities.
Origins Of Land Pollution
- Agricultural sources: It includes waste created by crops, animal manure and farm residues, chemicals leftover from all pesticides, fertilizers, and insecticides.
- Ashes: The residual matter that stays after solid fuels are burned is known as ashes. Two kinds of ashes are: Bottom ash is the residue from burnt metal and glass waste and it is not bio-degradable. The second kind of ash – fly ash. It is the ash that is entrapped by filters in the chimney of the incinerators.
- Mining sources: It contains underground waste, piles of coal refuse, and heaps of slag.
- Industrial sources: These contain paints, chemicals, metals and aluminum, plastics.
- Sewage Treatment: It contains biomass sludge, and settled solids.
- Household waste such as glass, metal, cloth, plastic, wood, paper, and so on.
- Deforestation: This leads to soil erosions, desertification, and land degradation.
- Chemical waste from chemical industries and other industries that are disposed into landfills.
Effects Of Land Pollution
- Hazardous chemicals can kill the living organisms in the soil.
- The action of landfills, mining, industry, are destructive to vegetation.
- It may drive arsenic poisoning. It can also induce liver, skin, heart, cancers, and neurological damage.
Noise is an unwanted sound or unpleasant sound which creates discomfort in the ears. Noise is thought to be environmental pollution.
Origins Of Noise Pollution
- Devices like TV, Loudspeakers, grinder, food mixer, dryer, vacuum cleaner, washing machine cooler, and air conditioners.
- Sounds from Places of worship, parties, discos, and other social events.
- Industrial and Commercial activities: Printing presses, building sites, and manufacturing industries.
- Sounds of Aeroplanes flying over houses, trains, over the ground and underground trains, vehicles on road.
Effects Of Noise Pollution
Noise pollution may lead to many issues such as hearing loss, sleep disruption, stress-related illnesses, speech interference, and lost productivity.
Climate change can be described as substantial changes in global temperature, wind patterns, sea levels precipitation, and other measures of climate that happen over several decades.
Climate change is prominent in the form of:
- Global temperature rise
- Warming oceans
- Shrinking ice sheets
- Glacial retreat
- Decreased snow cover
- Sea level rise
- Declining Arctic sea ice
- Ocean acidification
Causes Of Climate Change
- Improved Greenhouse Effect: The greenhouse effect is the warming that results when the atmosphere entraps heat radiating from Earth toward space. Gases that donate to the greenhouse effect include-Nitrous Oxide (NO2), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Water Vapour (H20), Methane (CH4), and Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
- Burning of fossil fuels: It has raised the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2).
- Industrial activities: These actions have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 280 parts per million to 400 parts per million in the last 150 years.
Future Effects Of Climate Change
- Sea level will increase 1 to 4 feet by 2100.
- The Arctic Ocean is possible to become ice-free.
- Hurricanes will become more severe and stronger.
- Climate change will result in more shortages and heatwaves.
- Changes in rainfall patterns.
- Frost-free season (and farming season) will grow.
- Temperatures will continue to increase.
Important Environmental Laws:
The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has brought several positive steps to minimize pollution of the environment
- Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was enacted in 1974 to deliver for the prevention and control of water pollution, and the strengthening or repairing of wholesomeness of water in the country. The Act was amended in 1988.
- Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was passed in 1981 and amended in 1987 to deliver for the prevention, control, and abatement of air pollution in India.
- Cess Act, 1977
- Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
- Public Liability Insurance Act, 1981
- National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995
- National Environmental Appellate Authority Act, 1997
- Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA)
- The Biological Diversity Act 2002 was born out of India’s attempt to discover the objectives promoted in the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 1992 which identifies the sovereign rights of states to use their Biological Resources.
- The National Green Tribunal has been launched on 18.10.2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 for sufficient and expeditious disposal of cases connecting to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right connecting to the environment and providing relief and compensation for harms to persons and property and matters connected therewith or accidental thereto. It is a technological body equipped with the required expertise to manage environmental conflicts concerning multi-disciplinary issues.
This article provides a detailed description of the notes on UGC NET People and Environment Notes 2022. The Entri Learning App will assist you with better preparation and study notes regarding UGC NET Exam General Paper 1.