Through open recruitment, Kerala PSC selects the Architectural Head Draftsman for the Kerala State Housing Board. For the selection process, PSC conducts the 100 mark questions test for 01 hours 15 minutes duration. Candidates with an architecture degree from any recognized board are eligible for these positions. Selected candidates will get hired to the Kerala State Housing Board on the pay scale of 19240-34500/. Let’s check the detailed syllabus for the Architectural Head Draftsman Kerala Housing Board.
Architectural Head Draftsman Kerala Housing Board Syllabus
Kerala Public Service Commission conducts the written test for the Architectural Head Draftsman post in Kerala State Housing Board purely on the architectural degree-based syllabus. The updated syllabus for the Architectural Head Draftsman is as follows:
Architectural Design Principles
- Elements that influence architectural space
- Fundamental Elements of Design: Point, Line, Shape, Volume, Form
- Principles of Design: Unity, Balance, Symmetry, Proportion, Scale, HIerarchy, Rhythm
- Anthropometric Studies: Average measurements of the human body in different postures, its proportion, application in the design of simple household and street furniture
- Basic human functions and their implications for space requirements. Minimum and optimum areas for various functions.
- Perception of colour and light, Colour Schemes based on principles of Harmony and contrast
- Stone: Classification, Characteristic features and uses
- Brick – country bricks & factory-made bricks – properties, available sizes-uses.
- Use of mud in construction
- Mortar- types – mud mortar, stabilized mud mortar, lime mortar, cement mortar -preparation techniques. Properties and applications.
- Timber: Classification of Timber– properties – available types of timber-suitability for construction
- Bamboo: Bamboo as building material-types-properties.
- Concrete: Ingredients of plain cement concrete grades, properties, applications and uses.
- Reinforced cement concrete, water-cement ratio, workability, curing, Different types of concrete- Lightweight concrete, Rapid setting concrete, etc.
- Forms of iron employed in building construction-wrought iron, cast iron and steel-physical properties-uses.
- Steel: Types of steel employed in building construction, properties, uses.
- Steel as reinforcement in RCC work: Types of reinforcement for concrete – standard forms
- Aluminium, plastic and polymers in building construction
- Glass and glass products: Paints, Classification – various types of paints, their characteristics and purpose
- Construction of foundations Soil: Load bearing properties of different soils -Bearing Capacity, Safe bearing capacity and methods for improving it. Site protection: Slope protection- Edge protection- Retaining walls- Materials and Methods.
- Shallow foundations: Spread footings – strip footing, stepped footings, isolated footing.
- Continuous footing – Strap footing, Combined footing. Mat/ Raft foundation.
- Pile foundation: Bearing piles, friction piles – concrete, timber, steel and composite piles. Cased and uncased, cast in situ concrete piles, Bored piles, pressure piles and precast concrete piles
- Structural systems using bricks: Arches, vault, brick piers, brick footing, brick masonry – brick walls in English bond and Flemish bond – half brick wall, one brick wall, T junction and cross junction.
- Wall systems- Structural frames, bearing walls, metal and wood stud walls. RCC columns, RCC walls, precast concrete wall panels and columns
Roof systems – Flat roof, Sloping roof and Curved roof
- RCC: One-way slab, Two-way slab, Two-way slab and Beam, Precast construction,
- Steel: One-way beam system, Two-way beam system, Moment connections, Shear connections
- Carpentry- Details of joints in wood –Doors – Windows –Furniture. Use of wooden members for various applications like structural systems
- Doors – Door types: Metal doors, metal-framed doors, plastic doors & glass doors.
- Windows – Window types: Aluminum, Steel and plastic Window operation: Fixed, casement, awning & hopper, sliding, and pivoting.
- Wall cladding- different types
Architectural Head Draftsman Syllabus: History of Architecture
- Introduction to River valley cultures: generic forces shaping settlements and habitats: Indus Valley Civilization, Mesopotamian civilization, Nile Valley Civilization (Egyptian) Greece – Palaces & Temples and their essential features. Geometry and Greek Architecture, Greek Capitals and Orders, Parthenon
- Rome –Typology of buildings – Colosseum, Forums, Palaces Pantheon, Basilica
- Salient features Vedic Village, Mauryan Empire –Architectural remains from Pataliputra, Asokan pillar at Vaishali, Buddhist Chaityas, Viharas, Stupa at Sanchi, Chaitya hall at Bhaja
- A brief overview of Hindu Architecture – Hindu Temple planning, essential features, philosophy and rituals creating specific architectural vocabulary – Early shrines of the Gupta and Chalukyan periods
- Dravidian Architecture: Dravidian culture and its relation to Architecture, Rock-cut creations under Pallavas, Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram. Dravidian Order is seen in Brihadeeswara Temple, Tanjore, Meenakshi Temple, Madurai. Panchaprakara temple planning.
- Salient features of Indo Aryan Temples. Examples – Lingaraja Temple, Bhubaneswar; Sun temple, Konarak; Kandariya Mahadev temple, Khajuraho temple complex
- Evolution of Islamic religious architecture in India Influences on Islamic Architecture, Salient features of a mosque. Qutb Minar, Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque complex
- Architectural Development under the kings of the Khilji – Example – Alai Darwaza. Tughlaq dynasty – Tomb of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, Khirki Masjid – Shish gum bad & Purana Qila, Delhi, Tughlaq, Sayyid and Lodi dynasty – Forms of Tombs Mughal Architecture – Development of the Mughal style under the different rulers – Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir Shahjahan, Aurangazeb
- Important examples –Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi, Fatehpur Sikri (layout, Bulund Darwaza, Diwan I Khas) Akbar’s Tomb at Sikandara, Tomb of Salim Chisti, The Taj Mahal, Agra, Red Fort, Delhi Development of Architecture through the periods Early Christian, Byzantine, Romanesque, Gothic and Renaissance
Architecture of Kerala
- Evolution of architectural style, Climatic, Geographical, Geological, Cultural, socioeconomic and religious factors, materials that influenced Kerala Architecture
- Salient features of domestic and religious architecture of Kerala.
- Religious Architecture: Early Cave temples of Kerala, Early Hindu Temples, Churches and Mosques. Evolution of religious architectural forms
- Domestic Architecture – Palaces (Padmanabhapuram palace, Krishnapuram palace)
- Religious Architecture – Salient features of a Temple- Vadakkunnathan temple, Peruvanam temple, Vaikkom Mahadeva Temple, Kaviyoor rock-cut temple
- Cultural Architecture-temple theatres, Koothambalams Temple Architecture
- Islamic Architecture in Kerala – Juma Masjid Thazhathangadi, Muchundi mosque in Kuttichira, Miskal masjid, Kozhikode
- Churches and Synagogues in Kerala:
- Traditional building materials and techniques used in Kerala- Timber, Laterite, mud, etc.
- Architecture after Industrial Revolution
- Architectural developments and impacts on society since the industrial revolution ExamplesCrystal palace, Eiffel tower, Arts & Crafts movement; Art nouveau, eclecticism, and the works of Horta, Gaudi
- Emergent new building/space types- structural engineering, standardization-Industrial exhibitions- Chicago School and skyscraper development.
- Futurism, Expressionism, Cubism, Constructivism, De Stijl and their influence on Architecture Bauhaus school & Walter Gropius, Modernism and the International style.
- Works of national and international architects; international styles, postmodernism, Deconstructivism in architecture.
- Chandigarh and influence of Le Corbusier, Louis Khan, Koenigsberger
- Works and ideas of Nari Gandhi, B.V.Doshi, Achyut Kanvinde, Charles Correa, Laurie Baker, Joseph Allen Stein, Hassan Fathy, Richard Rogers, Renzo Piano, Norman Foster, Richard Meier, Paulo Soleri Frank Gehry,
Santiago Calatrava, Geoffrey Bawa, Kenneth Yeang, Tadao Ando
Climate and Built Form
- Climate and Architecture: Climate, weather, components of climate, Global climatic factors, Global climate classifications
- Site climate, Factors affecting site climate, Macro & microclimate, Urban and rural climate, Site analysis concepts
- Human heat balance and Comfort: Thermal comfort factors, Physiological aspects, Body heat balance, comfort indices, comfort range and comfort charts
- Heat flow through buildings: Basic principles of heat transfer through buildings,
- Design considerations for warm-humid, hot-dry, composite and upland climates, Climate responsive design in the tropics: Principles and its application; Active and passive systems.
- Sun and the design process: Movement of the sun and solar geometry, Orientation for sun Natural ventilation and air movement: Air movement around and through buildings, Light and Lighting: photometric quantities, climate and light, basic principles of daylighting, A brief introduction to Energy modelling software and its application.
Architectural Head Draftsman Syllabus: Building Services
- Sources of water / hydrological cycle, Quantity of water – factors affecting demand & consumption – population forecasting – Problems
- Quality of water – Drinking water standards, physical and chemical characteristics of water Processes involved – sedimentation, coagulation, filtration & disinfection, sedimentation tanks – slow sand filters, rapid sand filters
- Distribution systems
- Plumbing layout in residential, high rise building
- Wastewater characteristics – Types of oxygen demand
- Preliminary treatment of wastewater – screens, grit chamber, detritus tank, sedimentation tank
- Biological & Anaerobic treatment of wastewater, Wastewater disposal
- Solid waste management, Refuse collection, disposal, Incinerator, composting, vermicomposting, Sanitary Landfilling, Biogas plants
- Refrigeration systems, Refrigeration Cycle, Various components of refrigeration systems and Cycle, Window AC, Split AC, Centralized systems
- Understanding Principles of Air-conditioning, Air Conditioning Equipment, Cooling towers, cooling coil, refrigerants, boilers, ducts, concepts of zoning, room air distribution-types of outlets, Direct expansion and chilled water systems.
- Types of compressors air-cooled & water-cooled condensers, introduction to cooling tower air handling unit, Computers in Architecture
- Introduction to personal computers – hardware/software– operating system – important DOS commands
- Introduction to CAD packages- Setting up & controlling– Creating & Editing Commands
- Organizing a drawing with layers, Introduction to BIM
Theory of Structures, Estimation and Construction
- Management, Theory of Structures, Loads on structure as a whole – Introduction – Dead Load – Live load – Seismic Load – Wind, Load – Tributary Load, Beams – support conditions – types
- Load types – Point load, uniformly distributed and varying loads, Beam analysis – Shear force diagram – Bending moment diagram of simple cases such as:
a) Cantilever beams with point loads, UDL & moment
b) Simply supported beams with point loads, UDL & moment
c) Simply supported overhanging beams (one side & both sides) with point load, UDL & moment
- Precast prestressed construction. Use and examples of various prestressed structures. Twoway waffle slab, Two-way flat plate, Two-way flat slab, Pre tensioning, Post-tensioning, Hollow core slabs, T beam and slab.
Estimation and Construction Management
- Measurement units for various building materials, Centreline method, Long and short wall method of estimates, PWD schedule of rate
- Specifications – Preparation of detailed and general specifications
- Different types of contracts, their relative advantages and disadvantages
- Project cycle, Organization, planning, scheduling, monitoring,
- Bar charts, work break down structure and preparation of networks. Network Techniques like PERT & CPM in construction management.
- Budgeting, Cost planning, Direct Cost, Indirect cost, Total Cost Curve, Cost Slope Time value of money
Town Planning and Urban Design
- Contribution of Ebenezer Howard, Le Corbusier, Clarence Stein, Patrick Geddes and C.A. Doxiadis to town planning
- Impact of urbanisation on cities, urban environmental problems, Models of urban structure, CBD, nodes, fringe area, peri-urban areas, ribbon development, extended metropolitan regions
- New urbanism, Transit-oriented development
- Master plans, Perspective Plans, Development plans, Town planning schemes, Regional Planning, Integrated rural and urban planning –Process of Plan preparation– Surveys for plan preparation– Development Control tools – land use, density, height, building line, FAR, etc.
- Institutional framework for planning and implementation –Acts related to Land Acquisition, 73rd and 74th Amendment of the Constitution –Coastal Regulation Zone Act –SEZ Act – Environmental Acts –Slum related Acts –Schemes and Programmes for development of urban areas.
- Urban Design: Definitions of urban design, urban scale, urban spaces, Urban massing, quality of urban enclosure, Image of the city and its elements –Kevin Lynch’s principles. Urban design survey, Urban renewal, urban conservation
- Road form and hierarchy-Road pattern, Pedestrian areas
Architectural Head Draftsman: Housing
- Nature and Magnitude of Housing Problem in India, Housing Shortage, Estimation of Housing Shortage
- Role of Housing in the National level, changing priorities in the housing policies and the major housing programmes carried out in the various five-year plans.
- Initiatives at global Level, Habitat Agenda, Changing role of governments from Providers to Facilitator
- Housing typology- apartments, detached housing, row housing, Housing Density- net density and gross density, Rental Housing
- Study of Slums, causes, Magnitude of the problem in India.
- One Lakh Housing Scheme and other major Housing Schemes in Kerala
- Housing the poor: Incremental Housing, Core Housing, Site and Services.
- National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy, National Rural Housing and Habitat Policy.
- Recent Programs in Housing- IAY, IHSDP, RAY, PMAY, LIFE
- Agencies involved in Housing: Government Departments, HUDCO, BMTPC, Housing Boards.
- Role of NGOs, Cooperative sector and Private Sector in Housing.
- Housing Finance: Essential characteristics, Sources of Housing Finance,
- Major finance agencies in housing at national and state level; NHB, RBI, HDFC, Scheduled Commercial Banks, Housing Subsidiaries, Cooperatives etc.
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