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Daily Practice Quiz 107 – Free Mock Test 2022 for IBPS, SBI, RBI and Other Bank Exams
1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
My aim is to present a conception of justice which generalizes and carries to a higher level of abstraction the familiar theory of the social contract. In order to do this we are not to think of the original contract as one to enter a particular society or to set up a particular form of government. Rather, the idea is that the principles of justice for the basic structure of society are the object of the original agreement. They are the principles that free and rational persons concerned to further their own interests would accept in an initial position of equality. These principles are to regulate all further agreements; they specify the kinds of social cooperation that can be entered into and the forms of government that can be established. This way of regarding the principles of justice, I shall call justice as fairness. Thus, we are to imagine that those
who engage in social cooperation choose together, in one joint act, the principles which are to assign basic rights and duties and to determine the division of social benefits. Just as each person must decide by rational reflection what constitutes his good, that is, the system of ends which it is rational for him to pursue, so a group of persons must decide once and for all what is to count among them as just and unjust. The choice which rational men would make in this hypothetical situation of equal liberty determines the principles of justice. In ‘justice as fairness’ , the original position is not an actual historical state of affairs. It is understood as a purely hypothetical situation characterized so as to lead to a certain conception of justice. Among the essential features of this situation is that no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status, nor does anyone know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence, strength, and the like. I shall even assume that the parties do not know their conceptions of the good or their special psychological propensities. The principles of justice are chosen behind a veil of ignorance. This ensures that no one is advantaged or disadvantaged in the choice of principles by the outcome of natural chance or the contingency of social circumstances. Since all are similarly situated and no one is able to design principles to favor his particular condition, the principles of justice are the result of a fair agreement or bargain. Justice as fairness begins with one of the most general of all choices which persons might make together, namely, with the choice of the first principles of a conception of justice which is to regulate all subsequent criticism and reform of institutions. Then, having chosen a conception of justice, we can suppose that they are to choose a
constitution and a legislature to enact laws, and so on, all in accordance with the principles of justice initially agreed upon. Our social situation is just if it is such that by this sequence of hypothetical agreements we would have contracted into the general system of rules which defines it. Moreover, assuming that the original position does determine a set of principles, it will then be true that whenever social institutions satisfy these principles, those engaged in them can say to one another that they are cooperating on terms to which they would agree if they were free and equal persons whose relations with respect to one another were fair. They could all view their arrangements as meeting the stipulations which they would acknowledge in an initial situation that embodies widely accepted and reasonable constraints on the choice of principles. The general recognition of this fact would provide the basis for a public acceptance of the corresponding principles of justice. No society can, of course, be a scheme of cooperation which men enter voluntarily in a literal sense; each person finds himself placed at birth in some particular position in some particular society, and the nature of this position materially affects his life prospects. Yet a society satisfying the principles of justice as fairness comes as close as a society can to being a voluntary scheme, for it meets the principles which free and equal persons would assent to under circumstances that are fair.
A. Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning to the word Contingency printed in italicized as used in passage.
B. Choose the word which is most SIMILAR in meaning to the word Hypothetical printed in italicized as used in passage.
C. Which of the following situations best represents the idea of justice as fairness, as argued in the passage?
A. All individuals are paid equally for the work they do
B. Everyone is assigned some work for his or her livelihood
C. All acts of theft are penalized equally
D. All children are provided free education in similar schools
E. All individuals are provided a fixed sum of money to take care of their health
D. Why, according to the passage, do principles of justice need to be
based on an original agreement?
A. Social institutions and laws can be considered fair only if they conform to principles of justice
B. Social institutions and laws can be fair only if they are consistent with the principles of justice as initially agreed upon
C Social institutions and laws need to be fair in order to be just
D. Social institutions and laws evolve fairly only if they are consistent with the principles of justice as initially agreed upon
E. Social institutions and laws conform to the principles of justice as initially agreed upon
E. Which of the following best illustrates the situation that is equivalent to choosing ‘the principles of justice’ behind a ‘veil of ignorance’?
A. The principles of justice are chosen by businessmen, who are marooned on an uninhabited island after a shipwreck, but have some possibility of returning
B. The principles of justice are chosen by businessmen, who are marooned on an uninhabited island after a shipwreck and have no possibility of returning
C. The principles of justice are chosen assuming that such principles will govern the lives of the rule makers only in their next birth if the rule makers agree that they will be born again
D. The principles of justice are chosen by potential immigrants who are unaware of the resources necessary to succeed in a foreign country
E None of these
F. The original agreement or original position in the passage has been used by the author as:
A. A hypothetical situation conceived to derive principles of justice which are not influenced by position, status and condition of individuals in the society.
B. A hypothetical situation in which every individual is equal and no individual enjoys any privilege based on the existing positions and powers.
C. A hypothetical situation to ensure fairness of agreements among individuals in society.
D. An imagined situation in which principles of justice would have to be fair.
E. An imagined situation in which fairness is the objective of the principles of justice to ensure that no individual enjoys any privilege based on the existing positions and powers.
G. A just society, as conceptualized in the passage, can be best described as:
A. A Utopia in which everyone is equal and no one enjoys any privilege based on their existing positions and powers
B. A hypothetical society in which people agree upon principles of justice which are fair
C. A society in which principles of justice are not based on the existing positions and powers of the individuals
D. A society in which principles of justice are fair to all.
E. A hypothetical society in which principles of justice are not based on the existing positions and powers of the individuals.
Given a paragraph and 5 options, the question asks which of the options completes (comes after) the paragraph best. Comprehending the paragraph is key to solving these. If none of the options given
below completes the paragraph choose “none of these” as your choice. (For quetions 2,3,4)
2. Normally, falling oil prices would boost global growth. This time, though, matters are less clear cut. The big economic question is whether lower prices reflect weak demand or have been caused by a surge in the supply of crude. If weak demand is the culprit, that is worrying: it suggests the oil price is a symptom of weakening growth. If the source of weakness is financial (debt overhangs and so on), then cheaper oil may not boost growth all that much: consumers may simply use the gains to pay down their debts. Indeed, in some countries, cheaper oil may even make matters worse by increasing the risk of deflation.
A. An energy-induced drop in prices, though good for consumer purchasing power, risks reinforcing expectations of lower inflation overall; it is part of the threat’s pernicious nature that such expectations easily become self-fulfilling.
B. The International Energy Agency, an oil importers’ club, said it expects global demand to rise by just 700,000 barrels a day (b/d) this year, 200,000 b/d below its forecast only last month.
C. On balance, energy consumers win and energy producers and exporting countries lose with falling oil prices.
D. On the other hand, if plentiful supply is driving prices down, that is potentially better news: cheaper oil should eventually boost spending in the world’s biggest economies.
E None of these
3. The 16th century in Europe was a great century of change. The humanists and artists of the Renaissance would help characterize the age as one of individualism and self-creativity. Humanists such as Petrarch helped restore the dignity of mankind while men like Machiavelli injected humanism into politics. When all is said and done, the Renaissance helped to secularize European society.
A. The year 1543 can be said to have marked the origin of the Scientific Revolution, with Copernicus publishing De Revolutionibus and setting in motion a wave of scientific advance.
B. The century witnessed the growth of royal power, the appearance of centralized monarchies and the discovery of new lands.
C. The very powerful notion that man makes his own history and destiny took root.
D. In the meantime, urbanization continued unabated as did the growth of universities.
E. None of these
4. As democratic nation states reorient themselves to being accountable to global financial markets, non-democratic bodies such as the World Trade Organization, and trade agreements such as General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and Trade in Services Agreement, they will necessarily become less responsive to the aspirations of their own citizens. With overt repression not always the most felicitous or
cost-effective policy option, it has become imperative to find ways and means to ideologically tame the economically excluded. This is critical because growing discontent could lead to political instability.
A. This is where behavioral economics in monitoring and ‘nudging’ the behavior of the financial elite comes in.
B. Hence the new focus is on the minds and behavior of the poor.
C. Ergo the drive to find market-led solutions to socio-economic problems.
D. Development is about freeing prices and making markets more efficient.
E. None of these.
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