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|Foundation day||Arunachal Pradesh Day|
Arunachal Pradesh Union Territory
Arunachal Pradesh Foundation Day or Statehood day is celebrated on 20 February. In 1972, it was constituted as a Union Territory and renamed Arunachal Pradesh and on 20th February 1987, Arunachal Pradesh (Land of the Rising Sun) became a full-fledged state. Since the time it got recognition as a state, they celebrate Arunachal Pradesh Foundation Day on 20th February every year.
It borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south. It shares international borders with Bhutan in the west, Myanmar in the east, and a disputed border with China in the north at the McMahon Line. Itanagar is the state capital of Arunachal Pradesh. Arunachal Pradesh is the largest of the Seven Sister States of Northeast India by area. The mountainous frontier state of Arunachal Pradesh, sanskrit for ‘land of the rising sun’, is situated in the extreme northeastern part of the country.
North western parts of this area came under the control of the Monpa kingdom of Monyul, which flourished between 500 BCE and 600 CE. The remaining parts of the state, especially the foothills and the plains, were under the control of the Sutia kings of Assam.
In 1912–13, the British Indian government made agreements with the indigenous peoples of the Himalayas of northeastern India to establish the North-East Frontier Tracts. It was divided into three sections, which eventually came to be called the Ballipara Frontier Tract, Lakhimpur Frontier Tract and Sadiya Frontier Tract.
In 1913–1914, representatives of the de facto independent state of Tibet and Britain met in India to define the borders of ‘Outer Tibet’ .British administrator Sir Henry McMahon drew the 550 miles (890 km) McMahon Line as the border between British India and Tibet, placing Tawang and other areas within British India.
The Chinese position was that Tibet was not independent from China and could not sign treaties, so the Accord was invalid, like the Anglo-Chinese (1906) and Anglo-Russian (1907) conventions.
In the time that China did not exercise power in Tibet, the line had no serious challenges. In 1935, a Deputy Secretary in the Foreign Department, Olaf Caroe, “discovered” that the McMahon Line was not drawn on official maps. The Survey of India published a map showing the McMahon Line as the official boundary in 1937. In 1938, two decades after the Simla Conference, the British finally published the Simla Accord as a bilateral accord and the Survey of India and published a detailed map showing the McMahon Line as a border of India.
India became independent in 1947 and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was established in 1949. The new Chinese government still considered the McMahon Line invalid. In November 1950, the PRC was poised to take over Tibet by force, and India supported Tibet.
Arunachal Pradesh was established as the North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA) in 1954 and Sino-Indian relations until 1960. Resurgence of the border disagreement was a factor leading to the Sino-Indian War in 1962, during which China captured most of Arunachal Pradesh. However, China soon declared victory, withdrew back to the McMahon Line and returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963.
The North-East Frontier Agency was renamed as Arunachal Pradesh by Sri Bibhabasu Das Shastri, the Director of Research and K.A.A. Raja, the Chief Commissioner of Arunachal Pradesh on 20 January 1972, and it became a Union Territory. Arunachal Pradesh became a state on 20 February 1987.
Consequently, the passing of the Constitution 55th Amendment Act, Arunachal Pradesh finally attained the full political status on 20 February, 1987.
There are 16 districts in the Arunachal Pradesh state and its capital is Itanagar. Itanagar is situated in the Papum Pura district of the state. Ita Nagar means fort made of bricks. The Ita fort got built during the time of the 14th Century AD.
The north-eastern-most frontier state of India, namely, Arunachal Pradesh, is an enchanting and alluring territory for its natural and scenic beauty and the rich cultural heritage of a large number of tribal communities inhabiting the state.
Facts about Arunachal Pradesh
- During the British Colonial Rule, until 1972, the state was named as the North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA).
- On 20th January, 1972, it became a Union Territory and named Arunachal Pradesh.
- Arunachal Pradesh became the 24th state of the Indian Union on 20th February, 1987 after the 55th amendment to the Indian Constitution in 1986.
- The state also got mentioned in Kalika Purana and Mahabharata literature from the Prabhu Mountains.
- The widely scattered archaeological remains at different places in Arunachal Pradesh bear testimony to its rich culture and heritage.
- Among the north-eastern states, Arunachal Pradesh has the largest area. The area of the state is even more than Assam that is the most populous north-eastern state.
- Much of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by the Himalayas. However, parts of Lohit, Changlang and Tirap are covered by the Patkai hills.
- The state is inhabited by the world’s largest variety of ethnic tribal groups and subgroups numbering over a hundred and each tribe speaking their own language and dialect. The significant tribal groups include Monpas, Nyishis, Apatanis, Noctes and Sherdukpens.
- Mostly the population of the state depends on Agriculture, mainly Jhum cultivation (slash and burn cultivation).
- At the local level, the state comprises more than one dozen districts. In general, those districts are divided into a number of subdivisions, which encompass several blocks, towns, circles, and villages. Villages are the smallest administrative units.
- Arunachal Pradesh does not have its own high court. Rather, the state falls under the jurisdiction of the high court in Guwahati, Assam. To handle cases from Arunachal Pradesh more effectively, however, a permanent bench of the Guwahati High Court has been established at Itanagar, with a chief justice appointed by the chief justice in Assam. Any case from Arunachal Pradesh may be referred to Guwahati, should the chief justice in Itanagar deem it necessary.
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