Communication is essentially a complicated process including sending, receiving, and interpreting signals. S. F. Scudder put forth the concept of communication theory in 1980. Despite having varied communication methods, it claims that every living thing on the world communicates.
Key actions, procedures, and commitments that make up communication can be discussed and analysed using concepts from communication theory. Communication theory provides us with the means to respond to empirical, conceptual, or practical communication concerns. Theory can be thought of as a technique to map the world and make it navigable.
According to the universal law of communication theory, all living things—plants, animals, and people included—convey information to one another by using sound, speech, visible changes, body language, gestures, or any other means necessary to let the other person know about their feelings, problems, joy, or other circumstances.
- Through noticeable changes in the colour of the leaves and the dropping of leaves and blossoms, plants can be seen to be in need of prompt attention and watering.
- Animals use sounds and several motions to signal when they are hungry, ill, or in need of care.
- Unless and until the child cries, a mother will never realise that the child is hungry. Again, crying is a way for the child to express his need for food and hunger.
- Sender-based communication takes place when a sender behaves egocentrically and assumes their communication style is appropriate for everyone.
- A sender-based individual is convinced that other people share their worldview and way of thinking.
- When the sender acts proviso, thinking they must think out the best way to convey this particular message to this particular individual or to this audience, it is said to be receiver-based communication.
- They are aware that what works for one person or circumstance might not be suitable for another.
- They are aware that how a language is interpreted differs based on one’s background and that different approaches may need to be taken depending on the audience.
Communication Theory Framework
Mechanistic – According to the mechanistic point of view, communication consists solely of the transmission of information from one person to another. The sender is the first party, and the receiver is the second.
Psychological – From the psychological point of view, communication is actually the sender’s ideas and feelings that he seeks to convey with the recipients rather than the flow of information from the sender to the receiver. After the recipient has decoded the information, it also includes his or her feelings and reactions.
Social – According to the social perspective, communication occurs when the sender and the receiver interact. It basically states that speech content directly affects how people communicate. The foundation of the social perspective is “how one communicates.”
Systemic – The systemic point of view contends that when people interpret communication in their own unique ways, reinterpret it, and come to their own conclusions, a new and distinct message is formed.
Critical – The critical point of view asserts that communication is merely a tool used by a person to demonstrate his or her authority and control over others.
The intricate process through which individuals originate, analyse, and coordinate communications to establish common understandings, accomplish societal objectives, maintain individual identities, and conduct interpersonal interactions.
We don’t communicate with people we know only in social situations. No of your relationship with someone, communicating with them is an interpersonal interaction.
Small Group Communication
The definition of small group communication is “many among many.” Although it is comparable to interpersonal communication in that many of the aspects of effective interpersonal communication apply to multiple persons interacting, the main distinction is the intended outcome.
Task completion is the aim of small group communication. However, in order for us to collaborate effectively and finish a task, our fundamental social needs must be satisfied.
One to many can be used to describe public speaking. The words “with” and “among” are used in interpersonal and small group contexts to imply a sense of reciprocal exchange and accountability. However, in public speaking, the speaker primarily communicates with the audience, and as a result, the speaker is held far more accountable for the communication event’s success.
Information transmission is the aim of public speaking. The speaker engages the audience in this largely unidirectional process by presenting some sort of concept, information, or perspective.
Communication that is mediated by computers is known as computer-mediated communication (CMC). It is overwhelming to think about all the ways we communicate using technology. This includes everything from mobile devices, texting, email, social media (such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram), message boards, and video conferencing.
There are various communication models for various sorts of communication because communication has grown so sophisticated over time.
- Shannon Weaver communication model
- Lasswell communication model
- Berlo communication model
- Barnlund communication model
- Schramm communication model
Linear Model: A transmitter encrypts a message and sends it across a channel for a receiver to decode under the linear model of communication.
Interactional Model: The communication model known as the interactional model is two-way. As they continuously encode and decode information, people cooperate to send and receive messages.
Transactional Model: The Transactional Model also takes into account the frame of reference or experience that each participant brings to the encounter and posits that information is sent and received simultaneously across a noisy channel.
Shannon Weaver communication model
Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver developed the Shannon-Weaver model in 1948. It is a linear, or one-way, communication model. We must first define the main ideas of the model before delving into what it truly is.
Sender: The message is created and sent by the sender.
Encoder: Signals are converted into messages by the encoder.
Decoder: After receiving the signals, the decoder creates a message.
Receiver: The message’s final destination is the receiver.
Noise: Noise is any unrelated interruption in the channel that could interfere with the reception of the message.
Lasswell communication model
Not long after the Shannon Weaver model was developed, Harold D. Lasswell developed another linear, or one-way, model called the Lasswell communication model.
The main distinction between the two is that, as opposed to focusing on a straightforward two-person discussion, Lasswell’s model investigates mass communication. Predicting the impact the message will have on the audience is a key component of this methodology. First, let’s look at a graphic, and then we’ll explain it.
Berlo communication model
Additionally, there are few differences between the Shannon Weaver model and the Berlo communication model. This version of the Shannon Weaver model was developed by David Berlo in 1960 and goes beyond it by taking into account all of the potential influences on each of the model’s constituents.
In the SMCR model
- S – Stands for Source
- M – Stands for Message
- C – Stands for Channel
- R – Stands for Receiver
The person who the notion originates from is known as the source, also known as the sender. He is the one who, after carefully crafting his message, communicates it to the recipient.
A message is generated when a person puts his thoughts into words. Encoding is another name for the procedure.
In reality, the term “channel” refers to the medium through which information travels from the sender to the recipient.
When the message is received, the receiver makes an effort to ascertain what the listener is trying to say and then responds appropriately. Decoding is another another name for this.
Communication skills: Both the sender and the receiver’s communication abilities have an impact on how effectively a message is conveyed. The receiver might not receive the intended message if the sender’s communication skills are inadequate. Additionally, the message could be misunderstood if the recipient isn’t a skilled communicator.
Attitude: The sender’s and receiver’s attitudes toward one another can affect how a message is delivered and received. This is especially clear when speakers display their tone through verbal communication.
Knowledge: Knowledge affects the message’s content and how the recipient interprets it. The message loses meaning if neither the sender nor the recipienT or both are knowledgeable about the subject at issue.
Social structures and culture: The surroundings and circumstances of the sender and the recipient can also have an impact on the message. The delivery and acceptance of a message can be aided or hindered by language, attitudes, beliefs, and life experiences.
To ensure a smooth information flow and better interpretation of the message, the receiver should be on the same platform as the speaker. To comprehend what the speaker is attempting to say, he should have effective communication skills. To properly comprehend the message, he needs have the proper mindset. He must be knowledgeable about the issue and should be on level with the listener. He ought to share the speaker’s social and cultural background as well.
The Berlo’s model of communication has various flaws. In order for conversion to occur smoothly, the speaker and the listener must share a same basis, which is occasionally impractical in real-world situations.
Barnlund communication model
Instead of being linear, this approach is transactional, emphasising two-way contact. Only when feedback is present is the Barnlund model applied. Sender and receiver are involved in a never-ending loop in which the roles of each party alternate depending on the speaker. Feedback acts as a fresh message in the back-and-forth conversation.
When conveying messages, the Barnlund model also takes into account the usage of verbal and nonverbal clues. When deciphering a message, it’s important to pay attention to these signs.
The key components of a linear model are recognised by the Barnlund model. It does, however, acknowledge the possibility that a communication could develop into a two-way interaction between sender and receiver.
Schramm communication model
Compared to the others, the Schramm communication paradigm is less conventional. It’s critical to understand that understanding a message differs from simply hearing it. You don’t need to read and understand a message in order to be the intended recipient and receive it. It takes an extra step even though we generally analyse messages as soon as we receive them. These are the several components you need to be aware of.
Encoder: The encoder encrypts the message and sends it.
Decoder: The message is received by the decoder.
Interpreter: The individual attempting to decipher the message.
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