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HLL or A High Level Language is a Computer Programming Language that supports system development at a high level. With the modification of programs in high level languages programmers are freeing themselves from keeping in his or her mind lots of details that are are not important with respect to the problem at hand. HLL is not limited by the computers; it is designed for a specific job and it’s easier to understand. High Level Language is less like machine language and more like human language. It was in 1950’s that the first high-level languages were introduced.In this article we will discuss in detail HLL , its introduction and list of various HLL. This article may be useful for the aspirants preparing for any competitive exam.
Uses of high-level language:
From past two eras High-level languages are preferred by the programmers because they provide a convenient generalization of the underlying system suitable for problem solving. The benefits of programming in a high-level language are:
- HLL supports a high level of abstraction for both instructions and data.
- This functionality improves the work ability of the program to read and modify conveniently.
Machine independent or portable:
- HLL are easily portable as they contain very few machine-specific details,hence HLL can be used with little or no modification on different computer architecture.
- If there is a translator for the language on a particular computer architecture, the program can be used on that architecture.
Data representation is hidden:
- High-level language provides you with software data maintainability feature, which involves functions ranging from fixing bugs to generating the next version of the software.
- It is easily maintained as per security and is flexible for future enhancement of a particular software program.
- Programs written in a high-level language can be easily understood and, when good programming practices are followed, easier to maintain and check the programming code error.
Faster program development:
- Many high-level languages provide structures like sequential, selection, iterative that facilitate program development.
- Programs written in a high-level language are relatively small and easier to write and debug.
List of High-level Programming Language:
There are many high-level languages presently in use, like BASIC, FORTRAN, PHP, Python, Ruby, C, C++, COBOL, Java, Pascal, Perl, and Visual Basic. Lets study them one by one.
- Developed by Dennis Ritchie in Bell Labs.
- Files are saved in .c format
- C++ was developed from C language.
- C is not an Object-Oriented Language or OOP Language.
- It is used to code System Software, Application Software.
- C language was used to write UNIX.
- Java was founed by James Gosling at the lab of Sun Microsystems.
- Files are saved in .JAVA format
- After Sun was taken over by Oracle, it became the owner of Java (JVM and JDK).
- Java is used to write Android applications.
- It is an OOP Language.
- Java does not depend on platforms
- SQL means”Structured Query Language”.
- Founded by IBM.
- SQL was declared a standard of (ANSI) American National Standards Institute in 1986.
- Used for database related work.
- “Hypertext Markup Language”was created by W3C and
- Files are stored in .htm an .html formats
- Websites are developed using this language.
- Itis a scripting language.
- Designed and developed by Microsoft.
- It is a multi-paradigm, object-oriented programming language.
- File extension is .vb Example (hello.vb).
- IDE (Integrated Development Environment) is Visual Studio.
- Stands for “Formula Translation”.
- Designed by John Backus.
- Developed by John Backus and IBM.
- File are stored in , .f08, .f15, .f, .fo, .f90, .f95, .f03 formats.
- Used for engineering calculation, mathematical operations.
- FORTRAN is a general-purpose imperative programming language.
- It stands for Algorithm Languages.
- Developed in 1958.
- There were three major specialisations of ALGOL: ALGOL58, 60 and 68.
- It was designed especially for Scientific implementations.
- Various other High-Level Computer Languages were inspired from ALGOL.
- It is an interpreted, high-level programming language.
- Released in 1991.
- It supports structured, object-oriented and functional programming.
- It used block coding.
- Stands for “Common Business Oriented Language”
- Designed by Howard Discount, Vernon Reeves,Howard Bromberg, Jean E. Sammet, William Selden, Gertrude Tierney.
- Developed by CODASYL, ANSI, ISO.
- File extensions are .cbl, .cob, .cpy.
- Even to these days it is used in legacy applications deployed on mainframe computers.
- Pronounced as See sharp.
- Designed and developed by Microsoft.
- File extension .cs.
- Windows mobile application is developed using C#.
- Stands for “List Processing”.
- Designed by McCarthy.
- Developed by Steve Russell, Timothy P. Hart, and Mike Levin.
- Used in AI (Artificial Intelligence).
- It is also suitable for input output handling and graphics.
- Stands for “String Oriented Symbolic Language”.
- Developed by David J. Farber, Ralph E. Griswold, Ivan P. Polonsky and Bell Labs.
- Designed by David J. Farber, Ralph E. Griswold, and Ivan P.Polonsky.
- It is a text-oriented language.
- Stands for “Programming Logic”.
- Designed by Alain Colmerauer.
- File extension .pl, .pro, .P.
- This language is used for “Artificial Language”.
- Can manage to handle large number of databases.
- Stands for “Beginner’s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code”.
- Designed by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz.
- Used for scientific and engineering operations.
- Designed by Bjarne Stroustrup.
- Files are stored in.cc, .cpp, .cxx, .C, .c++, .h, .hh, .hpp, .hxx, .h++
- C++ is an Object-Oriented Programming Language.
- C# and Java were influenced by C++.
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