Science is present everywhere around us. Being the essential element of life, the basic knowledge of Science is imperative for every individual. Science is based on laws, theories, facts, research and hypotheses. In other words, we sometimes refer to science as the way of pursuing knowledge and not merely knowledge. Deeply associated with Science are the scientific laws that are derived by continuous experiments and observations on a particular subject. As it forms one of the major parts of learning Science, it is essential to know about the Important Scientific Laws. So, in this article, let us discuss all about the Important Scientific Laws. Also, at the end of the section, get to download a free PDF of the list of all important scientific laws also.
What is a Scientific Law ?
To begin with, scientific laws or simply the laws of science are mere statements that are deduced by continuous and repeated experiments as well as observations which are used commonly to chronicle or foresee a natural situation. The term law is of broad spectrum- i.e, used in physics, chemistry and biology alike. Usually scientists use data to develop laws. However, it may or may not be based on empirical evidence.
Properties of a Scientific Law
Are Scientific Laws and Theories the Same ?
No, Scientific Laws are different from Scientific Theories.
Scientific Laws are different from Scientific Theories in the sense that laws are narrower than theories. While a law tends to explain only what happens when two forces meet, scientific theories do tell us much more. A scientific theory explains the “What” and “How” of a natural occurrence.
However, both scientific laws and scientific theories shall be considered as facts in common. Meanwhile, with ample evidence, a law or a theory can be falsified.
List of Important Scientific Laws
General Science is one common subject that is usually seen in competitive examinations. When you begin the preparation for any such examination, the right study material is always important and necessary. The basics of scientific laws and their founding scientists details is a repeated section in the competitive exams. Therefore, in this section of the article, we will provide you with the list of important scientific laws from physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, computer science, etc that prove the existence of major phenomena in nature, time and again. Check out the list here.
|Sl no||Name of the Law||Name of the Inventor||Domain|
|1||Amdahl’s law||Gene Amdahl||Computer science|
|2||Ampère’s circuital law||André-Marie Ampère||Physics|
|3||Archie’s law||Gus Archie||Geology|
|5||Avogadro’s law||Amedeo Avogadro||Thermodynamics|
|6||Benford’s law||Frank Benford||Mathematics|
|7||Beer–Lambert law||August Beer, Johann Heinrich Lambert||Optics|
|8||Bernoulli’s principle||Daniel Bernoulli||Physical sciences|
|9||Biot–Savart law||Jean Baptiste Biot and Félix Savart||Electromagnetics, fluid dynamics|
|10||Birch’s law||Francis Birch||Geophysics|
|11||Boltzmann equation||Ludwig Boltzmann||Thermodynamics|
|12||Born’s law||Max Born||Quantum mechanics|
|13||Boyle’s law||Robert Boyle||Thermodynamics|
|14||Bragg’s Law||William Lawrence Bragg, William Henry Bragg||Physics|
|15||Bradford’s law||Samuel C. Bradford||Computer science|
|16||Buys Ballot’s law||C.H.D. Buys Ballot||Meteorology|
|17||Byerlee’s law||James Byerlee||Geophysics|
|18||Charles’s law||Jacques Charles||Thermodynamics|
|19||Coulomb’s law||Charles Augustin de Coulomb||Physics|
|20||Curie’s law||Pierre Curie||Physics|
|21||Curie–Weiss law||Pierre Curie and Pierre-Ernest Weiss||Physics|
|22||D’Alembert’s principle||Jean le Rond d’Alembert||Fluid dynamics, Physics|
|23||Dalton’s law||John Dalton||Thermodynamics|
|24||Darcy’s law||Henry Darcy||Fluid mechanics|
|25||De Morgan’s law||Augustus De Morgan||Logic|
|26||Dermott’s law||Stanley Dermott||Celestial mechanics|
|27||Doppler effect||Christian Doppler||Physics|
|28||Einstein’s theory of relativity||Albert Einstein||Physics|
|29||Faraday’s law of induction||Michael Faraday||Electromagnetism
|30||Faraday’s law of electrolysis||Michael Faraday||Chemistry|
|31||Faxén’s law||Hilding Faxén||Fluid dynamics|
|32||Fick’s law of diffusion||Adolf Fick||Thermodynamics|
|33||Fitts’s law||Paul Fitts||Ergonomics|
|34||Fourier’s law||Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier||Thermodynamics|
|35||Gauss’s law||Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss||Mathematics, Physics|
|36||Gay-Lussac’s law||Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac||Chemistry|
|37||Graham’s law||Thomas Graham||Thermodynamics|
|38||Green’s law||George Green||Fluid dynamics|
|39||Gustafson’s law||John L. Gustafson||Computer science|
|40||Henry’s law||William Henry||Thermodynamics|
|41||Hess’s law||Germain Henri Hess||Thermodynamics|
|42||Hooke’s law||Robert Hooke||Physics|
|43||Hopkinson’s law||John Hopkinson||Electromagnetism|
|44||Hubble’s law||Edwin Hubble||Cosmology|
|45||Joule’s laws||James Joule||Physics|
|46||Jurin’s law||James Jurin||Physics|
|47||Kasha’s rule||Michael Kasha||Photochemistry|
|48||Kepler’s laws of planetary motion||Johannes Kepler||Astrophysics|
|49||Kirchhoff’s laws||Gustav Kirchhoff||Thermodynamics Electronics,|
|50||Kopp’s law||Hermann Franz Moritz Kopp||Thermodynamics|
|51||Lambert’s cosine law||Johann Heinrich Lambert||Physics|
|52||Leibniz’s law||Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz||Ontology|
|53||Lenz’s law||Heinrich Lenz||Physics|
|54||Llinás’s law||Rodolfo Llinás||Neuroscience|
|55||Marconi’s law||Guglielmo Marconi||Radio technology|
|56||Mendel’s laws||Gregor Mendel||Genetics|
|57||Metcalfe’s law||Robert Metcalfe||Network theory|
|58||Mitscherlich’s law||Eilhard Mitscherlich||Crystallography,
Condensed matter physics
|59||Moore’s law||Gordon Moore||Computing|
|60||Newton’s law of cooling||Isaac Newton||Thermodynamics
|61||Newton’s law of universal gravitation
|62||Newton’s laws of motion||Isaac Newton||Mechanics|
|63||Ohm’s law||Georg Ohm||Electronics|
|64||Ostwald dilution law||Wilhelm Ostwald||Physical chemistry|
|65||Pascal’s law||Blaise Pascal||Physics
|66||Planck’s law||Max Planck||Electromagnetism|
|67||Poiseuille’s law||Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille||Fluidics|
|68||Raoult’s law||François-Marie Raoult||Physical chemistry|
|69||Sérsic’s law||J. L. Sérsic||Astrophysics|
|70||Snell’s law||Willebrord van Roijen Snell||Optics|
|71||Sommerfeld–Kossel displacement law||Arnold Sommerfeld and Walther Kossel||Spectroscopy|
|72||Stefan–Boltzmann law||Jožef Stefan and Ludwig Boltzmann||Thermodynamics|
|73||Stokes’s law||George Gabriel Stokes||Fluid mechanics|
|74||Stoletov’s law||Aleksandr Stoletov||Photoelectric effect|
|75||Titius–Bode law||Johann Daniel Titius and Johann Elert Bode||Astrophysics|
|76||Torricelli’s law||Evangelista Torricelli||Physics|
|77||Van der Waals equation||Johannes Diderik van der Waals||Chemistry|
|78||Wien’s law||Wilhelm Wien||Physics|
|79||Young–Laplace equation||Thomas Young and Pierre-Simon Laplace||Fluid dynamics|
|80||Zipf’s law||George Kingsley Zipf||Linguistics|
Important Scientific Laws & Statements
There are many important scientific laws that explain to us the existence of some of the major phenomena. Out of the list mentioned above, here we will state some of the major laws of science. Read it till the end.
Avogadros’s law states that under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volume of all gases contain equal number of molecules.
Archimedes Principle states that whenever a body is submerged partially or wholly in a fluid (either a liquid or gas), it experiences an upward thrust (buoyant force), whose magnitude is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by it.
Boyle’s Law states that at a constant temperature, the pressure of a given quantity of gas varies inversely with its volume.
Coulomb’s Law states that the force of attraction or repulsion between the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged bodies is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction consists of two laws. They are:
- Whenever the magnetic flux linked with a closed coil changes, an induced e.m.f is produced resulting in a current flow.
- The induced e.m.f is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux.
Gauss’s Law states that the net electric flux associated with any closed surface is always proportional to total electric charge enclosed within it.
Joule’s law states that when current ‘i’ passes through a conductor of resistance ‘r’ then the heat produced is directly proportional to the square of the current as well as its resistance.
Kepler’s laws of Planetary motion is divided into 3 fragments. They are-
- All the planets in the universe move in elliptical orbits around the sun which is the focus.
- If we were to draw a line joining the planets , then it would sweep equal areas in equal intervals of time.
- The square of the orbital period of a planet is proportional to the cube of mean distance between the planet and the sun.
- KCL or Kirchhoff’s Current Law states that the current entering the circuit of a node is equal to the current leaving the circuit at the node, provided that it is a closed circuit.
- KVL or Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law states that in a closed circuit, the sum total of voltages at the node is always equal to zero.
Isaac Newton proposed three laws of motion, widely known as Newton’s Laws of motion.
- First law of motion states that everybody continues to be in a state of rest or in uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force.
- Second law of motion states that for an object with constant mass, the rate of change of momentum is directly proportional to the amount of force applied.
- Third law of motion states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Ohm’s law states that the current flowing through a conductor(between two points) will always be proportional to the voltage across them.
Snell’s law states that the ratio of the sine of the angles of incidence and transmission is equal to the ratio of the refractive indices of the materials at the interface.
Laws of Reflection
According to Euclid’s Laws of Reflection-
- The angle of incidence is always equal to the angle of reflection.
- The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane.
Free PDF Download of the list of Scientific Laws
In order to help you with the competitive examination preparation, we have provided you with a free PDF containing the list of all major scientific laws along with their inventors and applied domains. You may download it by clicking on the link below.
All of the aforementioned laws play a crucial role in Science as well as our daily life. However, none of these scientific laws were structured or formulated in a day. It took scientists many years of repeated trials, experiments and observations to finally put up a scientific law. These scientific laws help us to determine what will be the result of a certain condition, with the help of proven mathematical equations. Meanwhile, let us not forget that, the scientific laws are not permanent and is subject to change if proven otherwise.