Table of Contents
Ranjit Singh, also known as the Lion of the Punjab, was the founder and maharaja (1801–39) of the Sikh state of the Punjab. He was born on November 13, 1780, in Budrukhan, or Gujranwala [now in Pakistan], and died on June 27, 1839, in Lahore.
Ranjit Singh, known as the Lion of the Punjab, was the first Indian in a millennium to turn the tide of invasion back into the homelands of India’s traditional conquerors, the Pashtuns (Afghans). His holdings stretched from the Khyber Pass in the northwest to the Sutlej River in the east, and from Kashmir, the Indian subcontinent’s northernmost area, southward to the Thar (Great Indian) Desert. Despite his lack of education, he was an astute judge of people and events, free of religious bigotry, and gentle with his foes.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh – History
Maharaja Ranjit Singh is known as “Sher-e-Punjab” or “the Lion of Punjab” in the Punjabi community. He ascended from obscurity to become a local “MISL” chieftain; MISL refers to a unit or brigade of Sikh warriors at the time. There were 12 MISLs in the region at the time. He subsequently becomes the “Maharaja” of Punjab, ruling over a huge region that includes Kashmir and Ladakh in the north, the Indus delta in the south, Baluchistan and Jamrud in the west and north-west, and the Sutlej River in the east.
His father, Sardar Mahan Singh, was the ruler of the Sukerchakia misl when he was born on November 13th, 1780. Little is known about his boyhood; in fact, historians claim that just one “genuine” image of what he looked like much later exists (and that is from a painting by Emily Eden). The rest of the images are based on rumor and legend. However, it is commonly accepted that he lost his left eye as a toddler due to a smallpox infection. He was sent to Bhagu Singh’s Dharamshala in Gujranwala as a child to learn Gurumukhi, but he preferred warfare. In his field, he was unrivaled. Ranjit Singh was only ten years old when his father died in 1790. When other boys his age were out playing, Ranjit Singh found himself in the middle of a political situation, inheriting his father’s heritage.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh married Mehtab Kaur, the daughter of Rani Sada Kaur, the widow of the Kanhiyas misl ruler, Sardar Gurbaksh Singh, in 1795 when he was 15 years old. For many years, Rani Sada Kaur was in charge of Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s administrative matters. It’s vital to remember that Afghan invaders attacked India from from 1750 until 1810. Quite a few times. Afghanistan’s ruler, Ahmad Shah Durrani, had fired India nine times.
In 1796, Shah Zaman, Ahmad Shah Abdali’s grandson, visited Punjab; no king in Punjab could stand up to him and his 30,000 warriors and strong artillery. Maharaja Ranjit Singh saw the necessity for a united front and addressed numerous Sikh chiefs, who agreed to follow him. Shah Zaman was forced to return to Afghanistan by the collective army, which was led by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s reputation as a brave leader grew. When Shah Zaman fled Lahore, three Bhangi Misl Sardars reclaimed the city. Lahore’s prominent residents were well aware of their Bhangi overlords’ flaws. Maharaja Ranjit Singh was invited to take over Lahore.
By 1801, Maharaja Ranjit Singh had established himself as the Sikhs’ leader, and he was given the title “Maharaja.” On Baisakhi day, Baba Sahib Singh Bedi, a spiritual patriarch of the Sikhs, conducted the inauguration, establishing him as the Sikhs’ leader. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, on the other hand, refused to wear any regal symbols due to his modesty. Even the official seal didn’t mention him by name. It belonged to “Sarkar Khalsa Ji” (of the people). ‘Sarkar-i-Khalsa’ was also the name of his government.
His foreign minister finest exemplifies the Maharaja’s respect for his employees: a Muslim named Fakir Azizuddin, who questioned as to which of the Maharajah’s eyes was missing when meeting with British Governor-General George Eden. Fakir Azzizudin stated. “The Maharajah is similar to the sun, which has only one eye. I’ve never dared to peek at his other eye since the splendor and brilliance of his single eye is so overwhelming.”
Maharaja Ranjit Singh – Early Life
Ranjit Singh was said to be ugly and short. He was blind in one eye and had pockmarks on his face. He was a life lover who wanted to be surrounded by attractive men and women, and he enjoyed hunting, horses, and powerful liquor.
He was the only child of Maha Singh, and after his father’s death in 1792, he became the Shukerchakias’ chief. Gujranwala town and the surrounding villages, now in Pakistan, were part of his legacy. He married the daughter of a Kanhaya chieftain at the age of 15, and his affairs were managed for many years by his ambitious mother-in-law, the widow Sada Kaur. Ranjit Singh rose to prominence among the Sikh confederacy’s clans after a second marriage to a Nakkai girl.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh – Family
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Parents:
Mahan Singh Sukerchakia and Raj Kaur were Ranjit Singh’s parents. Mahan Singh was the Sukerchakia misl estates’ ruler.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Wife:
After Sada Kaur, Mehtab’s mother, persisted on the marriage, Ranjit Singh married Mehtab Kaur, the granddaughter of Kanhaiya misl’s Jai Singh. Ishar Singh (born in 1802) was the couple’s first child, but he died when he was just two years old.
Mehtab began living with her mother Sada Kaur when the couple divorced. She gave birth to Tara Singh and Sher Singh, Ranjit’s twin boys, after their divorce (born in 1807).
Ranjit Singh’s second wife, Raj Kaur, was the daughter of Ran Singh Nakai of the Nakai misl. Raj Kaur was also the name of Ranjit Singh’s mother, thus she changed her name to Datar Kaur. In 1798, she married Maharaja Ranjit Singh, and in 1802, she gave birth to their son and heir apparent Kharak Singh.
Moran was a nautch girl who lived in Makhanpur, a town near Amritsar and Lahore, and was born into a Muslim family. She used to dance for Ranjit Singh, and a year after he became Maharaja, she married him.
This marriage, however, was condemned by the Sikhs’ highest political institution, the Akal Takht, who ordered him to be publicly flogged. Ranjit Singh entered the room and humbly exposed his back for the lashing. As a result of his humility, the penalty was lowered to a fine.
Rani Ratan Kaur and Rani Daya Kaur
The Maharaja married Sahib Singh Bhangi’s widows, Rani Ratan Kaur and Rani Daya Kaur, in 1811. Prince Multana Singh was born to Rani Ratan Kaur in 1819. Prince Kashmira Singh and Prince Peshaura Singh, Rani Daya Kaur’s two sons, were also adopted by him.
Rani Rup Kaur, Rani Chand Kaur, Rani Lakshmi Kaur, Rani Mahtab Kaur and Rani Gulab Kaur
He married 5 daughters of various kings between 1815 and 1822.
The Sher-E-Punjab married Rani Rup Kaur, the daughter of Jai Singh of Kot Sayyid Mahmud, and Rani Chand Kaur, the daughter of Jai Singh of Chainpur in Amritsar, in the year 1815.
In 1820, he married Rani Lakshmi Kaur, the daughter of Jogki Khan’s Desa Singh Vadpagga, and two years later, in 1822, he married Rani Mahtab Kaur, the daughter of Chaudhury Sujan Singh. He also married Rani Gulab Kaur, the daughter of a Jagdeo landlord in the Amritsar district, around the same period.
Mehtab Devi and Raj Banso
He reinforced the alliance with Raja Sansad Chand of Kangra by marrying two of his daughters, Mehtab Devi (Guddan) and Raj Banso, after defeating and driving the Gurkhas out of Kangra. When Ranjit Singh died in 1839, Mehtab Devi was the one who performed Sati.
The 3 Later Wives (From 1830 to 1832)
In 1830, he married Rani Ram Devi, the daughter of Kaur Singh of Chhachriwala, who predeceased him. He also married Sardar Karam Singh Chinah’s daughter, though the date of their marriage is unknown. In 1832, he married Rani Saman Kaur, Subha Singh’s daughter.
Gul Bahar Begum
Sher-E-Punjab married Gul Bahar Begum, a dancing girl from Amritsar, in 1832. At Ropar in 1831, she danced in front of the Emperor’s English guest, Lord William Bentinck, the British Governor General. After the wedding, he went to the Golden Temple as an act of repentance for marrying a woman whose position did not match his own.
She adopted a Muslim boy because she had no children of her own, and his descendants currently live in Lahore. The British awarded Gul Begam an annual pension of Rs 12,380 after he survived Maharaja.
Maharani Jind Kaur
He married his last wife Maharani Jind Kaur, the mother of the last Maharaja – Duleep Singh, in 1835, four years before his death.
She was separated from her 9-year-old son after the Sikhs lost the Anglo-Sikh war, imprisoned, and banished. After 13 years, she was transported to London by her son in 1861, where she died in 1863.
Rani Har Devi, Rani Raj Devi and Rani Rajno Kaur
The year of these three women’ marriage is unknown, however they all took Sati after Maharaja Ranjit Singh died. They are Rani Har Devi, a Saleria rajput’s daughter, Rani Raj Devi, a Padma Rajput’s daughter, and Rani Rajno Kaur, a Sand Bhari’s daughter.
According to Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s last surviving son Maharaja Duleep Singh, Maharaja Ranjit Singh has 26 concubines in his harem.
I hope you found this article useful. The secret to clearing an exam is to prepare methodically and strategically. If you’re a candidate looking to start your dream job but don’t know where to start, our Entri app has you covered. Our staff will provide you with content and insights on the topics that affect you. Become a member of our app today and enroll in one of the many programs available. Stay up to date on various elements of the subject you’re interested in by using the app. Please feel free to leave any questions or concerns in the comments area. We will make every effort to reach back. Remove any self-doubts and negative thoughts from your mind. Make an effort to maintain a clear viewpoint. Consider why you desire this. Concentrate on the positive aspects of your situation and work diligently. Each day is a valuable gift that has been placed upon us, so make the most of it. Make an effort to improve yourself. Today is the day; let’s hope it goes well. Best wishes.