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Rural Development Schemes In India – Different ministries of the Government of India have come up with various government programs called schemes (Yojana) from time to time. These schemes could be either Central, state specific or joint collaboration between the Centre and the states.
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
Launched on 25 December 2000 by then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the scheme aims at enhancing rural road connectivity. This scheme provides connectivity to the habitations with less or no connectivity at all and helps in poverty reduction by promoting access to economic and social services. This ensures sustainable poverty reduction in the long run as people get an opportunity to get connected with the rest of the world. The scheme has been benefiting several villagers and is helping them lead better lives. Nearly 82% of roads have been built till December 2017 which have successfully connected several rural areas to cities. Remaining 47,000 habitations will also get connected by all-weather roads by March 2019. Earlier, the scheme was funded only by the central government but after the recommendation of 14th Finance Commission report the expense is shared by both state and central government.
Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)/ National Rural Livelihood Mission
Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana which is redesigned as National Rural Livelihood Mission was launched in 2011. Also known as Ajeevika, this scheme aims at empowering women self-help model across the country. Under this scheme, the government provides a loan of 3 lakh rupees at an interest rate of 7% which can be reduced to 4% at the time of repayment. The scheme was aided by World Bank and aimed at creating efficient and also effective institutional platforms for poor people. It also helped in increasing the household income by improving access to financial services. NRLM also helps in harnessing the capabilities of the poor so that they can participate in the growth of the economy of the country.
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana, a part of National Livelihood Mission, has the objectives of catering to the career aspirations of the rural youth and adding diversity to the income of rural families. Launched on 25th September 2014, the scheme’s prime focus is on the rural youth of poor families aged between 15 and 35. An amount of Rs 1500 crores has been provided for the scheme which will help in enhancing employability. The yojana is present in 21 States and Union Territories across 568 districts and 6215 blocks changing the lives of youth. Around 690 projects are being implemented by 300 partners. As per the government reports, over 2.7 lakh candidates have been trained till now and nearly 1.34 lakh candidates have been placed in jobs.
Prime Minister Rural Development Fellows Scheme
The Prime Minister Rural Development Fellowship (PMRDF) is a scheme initiated by the Ministry of Rural Development, implemented in collaboration with State Governments. It has dual goals of providing short-term support to the district administration in the underdeveloped and remote areas of the country and develop competent and committed leaders and facilitators who can serve as a resource for a long-term.
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)
As per the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) of 2005, 100 days of employment is guaranteed to any rural household adult who is willing to do unskilled manual work in a financial year. The Act addresses the working people and their fundamental right to live life with dignity. If a person does not get a job within 15 days, he is eligible for getting unemployment allowance. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) also highlights the importance of basic right to work. Amendments have been introduced to this act to minimise corruption in the scheme.
Swachchh Bharat Mission:
The Prime Minister launched Swachh Bharat Mission on the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi on 2nd October, 2014. The concept of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is to pave access for every person to sanitation facilities including toilets, solid and liquid waste disposal systems, village cleanliness and safe and adequate drinking water supply. The programme is to be implemented by Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. An action plan has been drawn up for Swachh Bharat to become a reality by 2019, the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. The Mission aims to triple the growth percentage of toilet from present 3% to 10% by 2019.
Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojna:
This programme was launched by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi on the birth anniversary of Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Narayan on 11 October 2014. Ministry of Rural Development will be the supervising authority for this programme. Under this programme each Member of Parliament will take the responsibility for developing physical and institutional infrastructure in three villages by 2019.
Sarv Siksha Abhiyan
Pioneered by former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Bajpayee, the Sarv Siksha Abhiyan was launched in 2000. It is an attempt to provide an opportunity to all children between 6 and 14 years of age to get free education which is also a basic fundamental right. The state and the central government share the expenses of this project.
National Social Assistance Programme
National Social Assistance Programme signifies the fulfilment of Directive Principles in Article 41 and 42 of the constitution which states that it is the duty of the state to provide assistance to the citizens in terms of sickness, unemployment, old age in limits of the economic capabilities. It is basically a centrally sponsored scheme of Government of India which provides financial help to widows, elderly, people with disability in form of pensions. The scheme was launched on August 15 in 1995.
Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana (Gramin)/ Indira Awas Yojana
Indira Awas Yojana revamped as Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana in 2016 is a welfare programme created by the Indian Government to provide housing to rural poor people in India. The goal of this scheme is to provide home to all citizens till 2022. The cost of constructing the houses will be shared by the centre and the state. The scheme has been implemented in rural areas throughout India, except in Delhi and Chandigarh. Houses developed under this scheme will have basic amenities such as toilet, electricity connection, drinking water connection, LPG connection etc. The alloted houses will be jointly under the name of husband and wife.
Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY)
Launched by the former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in 2000, the Antyodaya Anna Yojana aimed at providing food grains to around 2 crore people at subsidised rates. As per the scheme Below Poverty Line (BPL) families were provided 35 kgs of food grains. Rice was provided at the rate of Rs 3/kg and wheat at the rate of Rs 2/kg. The scheme was first launched in Rajasthan but has now been implemented in all Indian states.
Provision of Urban Amenities In Rural Areas (PURA)
PURA is a strategy for Rural Development in India which was proposed by former President APJ Abdul Kalam in his book Target 3 billion. PURA proposes that urban infrastructure and services should be provided in rural areas to create opportunities outside the cities. This will also prevent the migration of youth from the rural areas to urban areas. The Central Government has been running PURA programs in various states since its launch in 2004.
Roshni: Skill Development Scheme for Tribals:
The Ministry of Rural Development on 7 June 2013 launched a new skill development scheme designed to offer employment to tribal youth in 24 Naxal -affected districts. The scheme, which is named Roshni is supposed to provide training and employment to an anticipated 50000 youth in the 10-35 years age group, for a period of three years. As per the Ministry 50 per cent of the beneficiaries of the scheme will be women only. The scheme is designed in light of the Himayat project model, which was launched in Jammu and Kashmir has been implemented in Sukma, Chhattisgarh, and West Singhbhum, Jharkand, on a pilot basis over the last 18 months.
Heritage Development and Augmentation Yojna (HRIDAY):
This scheme was launched on the 21 January 2015 under the care of The Union Ministry of Urban Development. Its aim is to preserve and rejuvenate the rich cultural heritage of the country. In the initial phase of HRIDAY, 12 heritage cities have been identified which will be rejuvenated and developed. Union Government will provide 500 crore rupees to these 12 cities.
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS):
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005, was launched on the 2nd Feb.2006. Now the new name of this scheme is “Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act” (or, MGNREGA). This scheme is an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to provide ‘right to work’ to the people falling Below Poverty Line. It guarantees 100 days employment in a year to the village people. Fifty percent workers should be women. Its 90% funding is borne by the central government and 10% by the state government.
Training to Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM):
This centrally sponsored programme was started on august 15, 1979. The main target of this scheme was to provide technical and business expertise to rural BPL people who are in the age group of 18-35. This programme has been merged with Swarn Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna on April1, 1999.
Village Grain Bank Scheme:
This scheme was implemented by the department of food and public distribution. Main objective of this scheme is to provide safeguard against the starvation during the period of natural calamity or during lean season when the marginalized food insecure households do not have sufficient resources to purchase rations. Under this scheme needy people will be able to borrow food grains from the village grain bank and return it when they have abundant food.
National Rural Health Mission:
The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), now under National Health Mission is initiated on 12 April, 2005. Main aim of this plan is to provide accessible, affordable and accountable quality health services even to the poorest households in the remotest rural regions. Accredited social health activists (ASHA) scheme is also operational under this scheme. It is run by the ministry of health and family welfare.
Aam Aadmi Bima Yojna:
It was launched on october2, 2007. It’s a social security scheme for rural households. Under this scheme one member of the family is covered. The premium of Rs. 200 per person per annum is shared by the state and central government. V. The insured person need not to pay any premium if his/her age is between the 18 years to 59 years.
Kutir Jyoti Programme:
This programme was launched in 1988-89. Its main motive was to improve the standard of living of schedule castes and schedule tribes including the rural families who live below the poverty line. Under this programme, a government assistance of Rs. 400 is provided to the families who are living below the poverty line for single point electricity connections in their houses.