Water, water everywhere, nor any drop to drink’ is a famous saying existing in our country , but nowadays it not like that, our people are striving for water for our daily needs. 2/3 rd of our earth’s crust is covered by water but amount of pure water for drinking purpose is very less. As we all know agriculture is the one of the main occupation of our country. The whole population is depending on this primary sector of the country in either ways. In order to produce good quality food grains, pulses and various cereals plenty of water sources are required for irrigation. In fact, irrigation itself an artificial process of supply of water to crops as a substitute for their water needs. There are various water resources are there where we depend for irrigation facilities, like ponds, canals, wells, tube wells, builded dams etc, as this irrigation facilities promotes growth and development of crops. Irrigation process consists of various methods, it may differ accordingly with crop types. Here, we are introducing various types of irrigation in India which is very useful for various competitive examinations like SSC, Railways, UPSC etc.
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Types of Irrigation in India
Methods of Irrigation can be divided into two types :
- Traditional Methods
- Modern Methods
Traditional methods are some thing we are following from our ancient times itself. Actually, it cannot be considered as a method, as it is a common practice we have seen in our fields by our grand fathers or great grand fathers. Farmers usually pulls water from either wells or canals by themselves and carries to fields, sometimes the will use bulls or oxen to carry water and it is variable according to the distance and regions. It is a cheap method, as there is no cost, at the same time it is of poor efficiency and time consuming process, because of unequal distribution of water and the time required to carry the water from source to fields. The chances of loss of water content is high, by spillage, evaporation etc. Traditional methods used to pump or take water are, lever pump system, pulley system in wells, chain pump etc.
Of course, modern methods are alternatives for traditional methods to rectify its disadvantages time consumption, poor efficiency etc. It suggests new methods with the help of new technologies with high efficiency as well.
Various Types Of Irrigation
Various methods of irrigation are practiced to improve crop yield from our ancient times itself, and are practiced based on the types of soils, climates, crops and resources.
Here, 07 types of irrigation are explained in a concise way so as to understand the methods of irrigation followed by our cultivators.
In this type, water distribution is done across the surface of land by gravity, and there is no irrigation pumps are used here.
Low pressure method is used in this type as the water supply is localized to plant via a network of pipes under low pressure.
One of the modern method of irrigation, here water is distributed from a main centralized part by overhead pressure sprinklers. We are using high pressure sprinklers. Sprinkler irrigation method promotes a evenly distribution of water, as the sprinklers water over the crops, with a pump which is connected to pipes. By generating certain amount of high pressure, water is sprinkled evenly through nozzles of pipes connected with pump. Mainly this method is adopted of over areas affected with drought or water scarcity throughout the year.
In this method distribution is done through system of pumping stations gates. Sub irrigation, is an irrigation method practiced in certain areas with relatively raising water tables or we an artificially raise the water table in order to make the soil moisten from below the root area itself.
Drip irrigation is a modern technique, which is a micro irrigation type, in which water is supplied drop by drop to the roots. And it is done with the help of hose or pipes. Water is used at maximum optimum level, and it is applicable mainly in water scarce areas. As water is applied locally and leaching is reduced, fertilizer/nutrient loss is minimized. Weeds cannot absorb water as no water is available for them and thus grow in less number. Crop yield will be high in this method. Also, Fertilizers can be used with high efficiency. Operational cost for this method is comparatively very less.
Center Pivot Irrigation
In this, the water is distributed by a sprinkler system moving in a circular pattern. This method is also called as water – wheel and circle irrigation. The pivot can also sprinkle fertilizers dissolved in water, chemicals, pesticides, herbicides, etc.This is a versatile process which can improves the irrigation using a single machinery part, the central pivot.
Manual irrigation is a method which is labor intensive as well as time-consuming method of irrigation. The water is distributed through many ways using pots, watering cans etc. by manual labor. It is practiced with the help of manual labor so it is cost effective and maintenance less as we are not using any equipment at the same time this method is a best example for human efficiency.
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