The family is the basic unit of any society. It is very essential to the nation as the nation consist of individuals from different families. Socialization also begins from the family. A family can be defined as a group of persons who live together and are united by ties of marriage, blood or adoption. The family is a socially recognized unit of people united together by marriage or legal ties. Its ultimate aim is to provide for optimal development of its individual members. Management of own circle of relatives lets in us to triumph over our man or woman limitations.
‘Family is a group of persons united by ties of marriage, blood or adoption constituting a single household interacting and inter-communicating with each other in their respective social roles of husband and wife, father and mother, son and daughter, brother and sister, creating a common culture.’
The first connections for every individual in this world is her/his family. Family resources are the approach that may be utilized by the own circle of relatives to deal with tough situations; those encompass social, cultural, religious, financial and medical resources.
Roles of Family
- Procreation or child bearing
- Manifest love to its members
- Provision of food, shelter and clothing for its members
- Transmits culture and norms from its members to the society
- Socialization of its members
- Companionship: family members share experiences.
- Personal security and acceptance: people feel more protected within their families than outside.
Values are beliefs, feelings and idea about what is important. They are based on ideas about what is right, good and desirable. Values cannot be seen, they are only reflected in our actions. They can be positive or negative. Examples of positive values are: freedom, courtesy, good health, orderliness, friendship, leisure, love, patience, respect, tolerance, compassion, fairness, trust, honesty, etc. Examples of negative values are: dishonesty, envy, falsehood, selfishness, corruption, and so on.
Importance of Family
- Provides confidence and strength to Family members
- Helps to control behaviour of family members
- Helps the family members to make decisions
- Provides motivation for action
Features of Family
- Family is a Universal group. It is found in some form or the other, in all types of societies whether primitive or modern.
- A family is based on marriage, which results in a mating relationship between two adults of opposite sex.
- Every family provides an individual with a name, and hence, it is a source of nomenclature.
- Family is the group through which descent or ancestry can be traced.
- Family is the most important group in any individual’s life.
- Family is the most basic and important group in primary socialization of an individual.
- A family is generally limited in size, even large, joint and extended families.
- The family is the most important group in society; it is the nucleus of all institutions, organizations and groups.
- Family is based on emotions and sentiments. Mating, procreation, maternal and fraternal devotion, love and affection are the basis of family ties.
- The family is a unit of emotional and economic cooperation.
- Each member of family shares duties and responsibilities.
- Every family is made up of husband and wife, and/or one or more children, both natural and adopted.
- Each family is made up of different social roles, like those of husband, wife, mother, father, children, brothers or sisters.
Functions of Family
1. Family is a unit via which procreation takes place. Marriage sanctions sexual relationships, and it additionally establishes a own circle of relatives, that is similarly strengthened with the start of children.
2. The technique of replica is institutionalized, regulated and managed in a own circle of relatives. The own circle of relatives legitimizes the act of replica.
3. Family allows in propagation of human species and perpetuation of human race.
4. Family affords an person with an identity.
5. It is through the own circle of relatives that each own circle of relatives call is carried on from one generation to some other.
6. Family is accountable for the manufacturing and upbringing of children.
7. Family is an vital agent of socialization. The number one socialization of any man or woman takes area in the own circle of relatives. The immediate own circle of relatives contributors train all of the simple guidelines and norms of social existence to a child.
8. Family is likewise an vital agent of cultural transmission. Culture is transmitted from one era to some other through own circle of relatives. All the factors of way of life are learnt in the own circle of relatives structure.
9. Family is a top notch supply of strength, emotional and psychological, for its members. All the contributors are conscious that they are able to rely upon their own circle of relatives withinside the instances of need.
10. Family offers an person with a home, and establishes enduring social relationships.
11. The own circle of relatives is the premise of department of labour, in which all individuals have their obligations and responsibilities toward every other.
12. A own circle of relatives fulfills the financial desires of its individuals. This feature has gone through transformation, with households shifting from being manufacturing and intake devices in in advance times, to turning into extra of eating devices as opposed to a producing one. Now-a-days, individuals of a own circle of relatives not produce matters themselves; rather, they exit and paintings for a few economic remuneration or wages.
13. Family is historically chargeable for the training of the children.
14. Family additionally has a leisure feature. Earlier, maximum activity changed into own circle of relatives- based. Family gatherings all through festivals, functions, own circle of relatives reunions, marriages, introduced complete households together. Now-a-days, taking own circle of relatives individuals out on vacations or for movies, plays, dinners, or parties, etc., carry out the identical function.
Characteristics of Family
A Mating Relationship
A mating relationship is an essential precondition for the status quo of own circle of relatives. When intercourse intercourse relation is hooked up among male and lady at that second own circle of relatives is formed. This intercourse dating of own circle of relatives is referred to as mating dating. Without which no own circle of relatives may be formed. As intercourse wishes is the maximum essential want of people to satisfy this guy and lady input into mating relation and own circle of relatives is formed. This mating dating can be transient or permanent. But a few sorts of mating dating have to exist among guy and lady. When this mating relation involves an cease own circle of relatives breaks down.
A form of Marriage
A form of marriage is every other vital function of own circle of relatives. Because the mating dating is mounted thru a few shape of marriage. This shape of marriage can be easy or complicated or can be monogamy, polygamy or organization marriage or every other shape. Every own circle of relatives observe a specific shape of marriage.
Some rules of mate selection
Every own circle of relatives follows a few policies or techniques thru which it establishes the conjugal relationship via way of means of which own circle of relatives is formed. This method of mate choice can be executed via way of means of mother and father or can be performed via way of means of the people concerned. This policies can be endogamous or exogamous.
A system of Nomenclature
Every own circle of relatives identifies itself via way of means of a call. It additionally has a machine of call giving. The new members of the own circle of relatives take the call of the own circle of relatives wherein he become aware of himself. Different own circle of relatives have special methods of reckoning descent. Mainly it could be via the male line or lady line. In different phrases the descent can be acknowledged via father, mom or both. Accordingly the descent is referred to as patrilineal, Matrilineal or bilineal.
An economic provision
Every families have to have an financial provision to meet exceptional financial wishes of its members. Usually it’s miles the responsibility of the top of the own circle of relatives to hold on sure career to earn cash and thereby satisfy the financial want of its members.
A common habitation
Every families want a not unusual place family to stay in. Because without it own circle of relatives can’t satisfy its mission of infant rearing. Different policies are there for the status quo of house. After marriage spouse may also stay in her husband’s parental domestic or may also live in her very own parental domestic that’s referred to as patrilocal and matrilocal house respectively or each of them may also set up a seperate domestic that is called neolocal house.
Types of Family
1. Based on Birth
Family of Orientation
The family in which an individual is born is his family of orientation.
Family of Procreation
- The family where an individual sets up after his/her marriage is his/her family of procreation.
- The family of orientation and procreation may live together under the same roof, but can still be distinguished.
2. Based on Marriage
This family consists of one husband and wife, including children and is based on monogamous marriages.
A family consisting of one husband, and more than one wife, and all the children born to all the wives or adopted by each of them. This type of family has its basis in the polygynous form of marriage.
A family made up of one wife and more than one husband, and the children, either born or adopted with each one of them. This family is based on polyandrous marriage.
3. Based on Residence
Family of Matrilocal Residence:
When a couple stays in the wife’s house, the family is known as family of matrilocal residence.
Family of Patrilocal Residence:
When a family stays in the house of husband, the family is known as family of patrilocal residence.
Family of Changing Residence:
When a family stays in the husband’s house for some time, and moves to wife’s house, stays there for a period of time, and then moves back to husband’s parents, or starts living in another place, the family is called a family of changing residence.
4. Based on Ancestry or Descent
When ancestry or descent is traced through the female line, or through the mother’s side, the family is called matrilineal family.
A family in which the authority is carried down the male line, and descent is traced through the male line or the father’s side, is called a patrilineal family.
5. Based on Authority
Matriarchal families are generally found in matrilineal societies. In these families, a woman is the head of the family, and authority is vested in her. Succession of property is through the female line, i.e., only daughters inherit the property.
After marriage, the husband resides in the wife’s house and descent is traced through the mother’s side. Here, children are brought up in mother’s house. Thus, in matriarchal societies, the matrilocal system exists. Matriarchal families are found only in matrilineal societies, which are very limited in number all over the world. They are found in parts of Latin America, Ceylon, parts of Africa and India (the Khasis and the Garos).
Patriarchal families are commonly found in all parts of the world, since most societies in the world are patrilineal societies. In patriarchal families, the head of the family is a male, and authority is vested in him. Descent and property is passed through the male line and children are brought up in father’s house. Such families are patrilocal in nature.
6. Based on the Nature of Relations:
The conjugal family is made up of adults among whom there is a sexual relationship. It refers to a family system of spouses and their dependent children. The emphasis is placed on the marital relationship that exists between spouses. In modern times, the term ‘conjugal family’ is being used for partners, who have a long- term sexual relationship, but are not actually married.
A consanguine family is made up of members among whom a blood relation exists, or those who are consanguineal kin, i.e., a family consisting of parent(s) and children, or siblings (brothers, sisters, or brothers and sisters).
7. Based on state or structure
A nuclear family is a small group consisting of a husband, a wife and children, natural or adopted. It is more or less an autonomous unit that is not under the control of adults or elders of the family. It consists of two generations only. In all modern societies, nuclear family is the most common type of family. In fact, nuclear family is both the consequence as well as the cause of the disintegration of joint family.
A joint family consists of three generation, living together under the same roof, sharing the same kitchen and purse or economic expenses. It is a family consisting of three nuclear families living together. According to Iravati Karve, a joint family is ‘a group of people, who generally live under the same roof, who eat food cooked at one hearth, who hold property in common, and who participate in common family worship and are related to each other as some particular type of kindred.’
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