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Satyendra Nath Bose was a well known mathematician as well as Indian Physicist specializing in theoretical physics. He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s, proving the foundation of Bose-Einstein statistics and is the name sake of the ‘BOSON’. He was born into a middle class family on January 1, 1894 in British India’s capital city, Calcutta, Bengal Presidency. Today the city is known as Kolkata, located in the Indian state of West Bengal.
This article gives you a glimpse of Inventions, contributions, awards received, famous quotes and other important facts of the well known physicist and Mathematician Satyendra Nath Bose. Going through this article will be very useful in GK parts for the candidates who are preparing for various competitive exams.
|Satyendra Nath Bose|
|Born||January 1, 1894|
|Died||February 4, 1974, Kolkata, India|
|Birth Place||Kolkata, India|
|Education||University of Calcutta(1915), Presidency University(1909-1913), Hindu School|
|Known for||Bose–Einstein condensate, Bose–Einstein statistics, Bose–Einstein distribution, Bose–Einstein correlations, Bose gas Boson, Ideal Bose Equation of State Photon gas|
|Awards||Fellow of the Royal Society, Padma Vibhushan|
|Contribution||Planck’s “quantum radiation law”, quantum mechanics|
Biography of Satyendra Nath Bose
Satyendra Nath Bose was born into a middle class family on January 1, 1894 in British India’s capital city, Calcutta, Bengal Presidency. He was the eldest child to his parents and He was the son of Surendra Nath Bose. In his childhood Bose had attended the Hindu School and later he attended the Presidency College of Kolkata. Bose had remained a brilliant student all through his life and had excelled in every academic examination of his life.
During his lifetime he had come in contact with eminent teachers like Jagadish Chandra Bose and Prafulla Roy.
During the period 1916 to 1921 Bose had remained a lecturer in the department of Physics in the University of Calcutta. In the year 1921 he joined the Physics Department of Dacca University.
In the year 1924 Bose presented a seminal paper on quantum statistics. Initially his paper was not given much importance but when Einstein later realised the importance of his paper he submitted his paper to a prestigious authority and as a result Bose got the chance to leave India for the first time.
Bose returned to Dhaka in 1926 and was made the Head of the Department of Physics and continued teaching at the Dhaka University till 1945.
When partition of Bengal had become evident Bose had returned to India and had started teaching in the University of Calcutta. He retired from teaching in 1956.
During his lifetime Bose had met many eminent scientists like Marie Curie, Meghnad Saha and had worked in collaboration with them. Besides physics Bose had a lot of interest in many other fields like biochemistry and literature.
His interest in literature included studies both in English and Bengali. Bose had also carried deep studies in the field of chemistry, zoology, geology, anthropology, engineering and other sciences.
Bose was then appointed as the head of all the Physics department at University of Kolkata upon his return from the Paris in the 1927 and he then continued to hold this position until the year 1945. Bose then stopped publishing papers for a very long time after his return and instead chose to concentrate on other fields such as the philosophy, literature and the famous Indian independence movement. He was latterly awarded the title of the Padma Vibhushan by the Indian government itself, which is the second top highest civilian award in the India, and in 1959, he was appointed as the “National Professor” which is the most highest honor received by any scholar in India. Other great honors include adviser to the Council of the Scientific and Industrial Research, National Institute of the Science and appointment as the Fellow of the Royal Society in the London in 1958 and the president of the Indian Physical Society. Satyendra Nath Bose died on the February 4, 1974. The S.N. Bose National Centre for the Basic Sciences is located in the Salt Lake, Calcutta is named in his honor.
Contribution of Satyendra Nath Bose
- The main contributions of Satyendra Nath Bose were his papers on statistical mechanics, the electromagnetic properties of the ionosphere, the theories of X-ray and many more.
- In 1924, Bose made the biggest and the greatest breakthrough of his career when he finally wrote a paper in which he had derived Planck’s “quantum radiation law”. This he did by just counting the number of the identical states, without any kind of reference to any classical physics theories. This paper was of very immense importance as Planck’s law had not been successfully proven satisfactorily up to this level. This paper was submitted by Bose to Albert Einstein for his review.
- Einstein was considerably very impressed with Bose’s research and also translated it into German and further submitted his paper to the great European Physics Journal (known as the Zeitschrift für Physik) with his own personal recommendation. Einstein used Bose’s basic concept and then further extended the research into the developed field of material physics.
Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. It is the foundation of all quantum physics including quantum chemistry, quantum field theory, quantum technology, and quantum information science.
Quantum mechanics differs from classical physics in that energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other quantities of a bound system are restricted to discrete values (quantization), objects have characteristics of both particles and waves, and there are limits to how accurately the value of a physical quantity can be predicted prior to its measurement, given a complete set of initial conditions (the uncertainty principle).
In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein (B–E) statistics describes one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting, indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states at thermodynamic equilibrium. The aggregation of particles in the same state, which is a characteristic of particles obeying Bose–Einstein statistics, accounts for the cohesive streaming of laser light and the frictionless creeping of superfluid helium. The theory of this behaviour was developed (1924–25) by Satyendra Nath Bose, who recognized that a collection of identical and indistinguishable particles can be distributed in this way. The idea was later adopted and extended by Albert Einstein in collaboration with Bose.
The Bose–Einstein statistics applies only to the particles not limited to single occupancy of the same state – that is, particles that do not obey the Pauli exclusion principle restrictions. Such particles have integer values of spin and are named bosons.
Inventions of Satyendra Nath Bose
Satyendra nath Bose was a noted Indian Mathematician, physicist whose contribution holds special place in the field of Indian Science.
Satyendranath Bose was an Indian mathematician and physicist noted for his collaboration with Albert Einstein in developing a theory regarding the gas-like qualities of electromagnetic radiation.
Satyendranath Bose is best known for his work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s, providing the foundation for Bose-Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose-Einstein condensate.
The class of particles that obey Bose–Einstein statistics, bosons, was named after Bose by Paul Dirac.
He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s, collaborating with Albert Einstein in developing the foundation for Bose–Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose–Einstein condensate.
Awards conferred by Satyendra Nath Bose
National Professor Satyendra Nath Bose was elected as President of ISI in October 1967. He remained as President of ISI till 1974.
He had the close intimacy with ISI and PCM throughout his life. The Undergraduate Degree Courses of ISI was started in 1960. S N Bose inaugurated this Degree Course at a function held on 17 August 1960, at which addresses were also given by Prof. J B S Haldane and Prof. P C Mahalanobis. After the death of Girindra Sekhar Bose, Satyendra Nath Bose was appointed as the third Trustee at ISI. Later he became the Vice President of ISI in the same year. The 29th anniversary celebrations of ISI commenced on 19 December 1960 and S N Bose, Vice-President of the Institute, was the guest speaker in this.
In its first Convocation of ISI, Professor S N Bose was conferred the Honorary Doctor of Science along with four other eminent persons like Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, Sri Jawaharlal Nehru, Academician Andrei Nikolayevich Kolmogorov and Dr. Walter Andrew Shewhart.
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellow of the Royal Society is one of the awards granted by judges of the Royal Society London. Satyendra Nath Bose was honored with the fellowship of Royal Society on 20 March 1941.
The Padma Bhushan is the second highest civilian award among the awards in the country. Awarded for the recognizing service of a High Order to the Nation in any field. Satyendra Nath Bose received Padma Vibhushan in 1954 for outstanding contributions in Science and Mathematics.
Quotes of Satyendra Nath Bose
- “A Man’s Daughter is his Heart. Just with feet, walking out in the world”.
- “You never know until it happens, what you will owe the dead”.
- “I almost vomited in the boot! I was just about to vomit in the boot! Can you imagine how upset I would have been?”
- “I knew unless I got stopped I was going to go all the way. I don’t know if I can run any faster. I just ran as fast as I could”.
- “Idealism, however impractical, gives a meaning to our existence”.
- “Culture makes the whole world our dwelling place; our palace in which we take our ease and find ourselves at one with all things”.
- “Bosons, by the way, are named for the Indian scientist Satyendra Nath Bose”.
- “I really enjoyed playing that Blind stuff because it’s a little more mathy and metal and as far as drumming goes, it’s a bit more fun”.
Instead of opting for a Ph.D, Bose decided to join the Calcutta University as a research scholar in 1916. He took up studies in the theory of relativity and served as a physics lecturer. Along with Saha, he wrote many papers on theoretical physics and pure mathematics.
The next year, his first paper on quantum statistics was published in the Philosophical Magazine. In 1921, he joined the Dhaka University’s physics department as a Reader. Three years later, he wrote a paper on Planck’s quantum radiation law which was seminal in creating the field of quantum statistics.
The publication led to recognition and Bose got an opportunity to work in Europe for two years at X-ray and crystallography laboratories, where he worked alongside Einstein and Marie Curie, among other renowned scientists of the time.
After teaching at the Dhaka University for almost 25 years, where he was also the Dean of the Faculty of Science, Bose returned to the Calcutta University in 1945 and taught there till retirement in 1956.
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