In this article, we are providing you the new and repeated patterns of questions from Syllogism portion. The verbal ability portions are important and are included in the Reasoning section. This section is simple compared to the other sections. The syllogism is based on the logical analysis of statements and conclusions given. Candidates have to understand the statement and analyze it answer accordingly. Let us practice some syllogism questions for IBPS PO, Clerk examinations.
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The Syllogism is an unavoidable topic in the Reasoning part of almost all government competitive examinations. These questions can be a little bit confusing for the candidates. However regular practice will surely help to sort such issues. For all banking exams, 4-5 Syllogism questions can be expected in the Prelims stage.
Basic concepts of Syllogism
Every question will be having two parts- one or two arguments and 2,3 or 4 conclusions supporting the arguments. Candidates have to choose the right option comparing conclusions that logically follow the arguments. The arguments will be having terms, which usually have no similarities, compared by some specific qualifiers. There are Universal qualifiers like All, No, and Specific ones like Some and Some not.
E.g. All Bats are Rats. Some Bats are Rats. No Rats are Bats. Some Bats are not Rats.
Positive(All and Some) and negative(Some and Some not) terms are complementary to each other- All-No and Some-Some-not. These can be negated at conclusions with negative qualifiers.
The new patterns of questions always contain new synonyms of qualifiers in order to confuse the candidates. Check these synonyms:
- All- Any, Each, Every
- No- None, No one, Not single
- Some-Many, Most, More, Few, Atleast/ Almost/ Generally/ Mostly. Usually
- Some Not-All not, Not all
These types of statements are analyzed either through Rules or by drawing Venn diagrams. Venn diagram method is a more reliable and easy method. Using the Venn diagram all possible logical relations and visualizations are drawn connecting the finite terms. And thus reach conclusions and candidates have to decide which one is true or false.
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Syllogism Questions for IBPS- Practice
Statements: All pens are rubbers. All rubbers are pencils. Some pencils are scales.
Conclusions: (i) All pens are a pencil. (ii) Some rubbers are scale. (iii) No pen is scale. (iv) No pencil is a pen.
Draw the basic diagram according to the statements given. Now candidates can answer the positive terms among the conclusions just by checking and comparing the basic facts drawn. And also extend the diagram towards possibilities without encroaching the data given in the statements.
So, as per Statements and diagrams, check the conclusions
For positive conclusions just check the basic figure and if it follows, the conclusion follows and vice-versa.
(iii) This is a negative conclusion and follows in the basic Venn diagram drawn now. So, one should negate this with compliment Some. And further, check for alternate possibilities. Here we can have “some” relations with these two terms without encroaching the data given in the statements, and hence conclusion does not follow the statements given.
(iv) Again it is a negative conclusion and false in the diagram. Hence it also does not follow.
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Statements given below are followed by conclusions. Read carefully and decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.
(1) if only conclusion I follow
(2) if only conclusion II follows
(3) if either conclusion I or II follows
(4) if neither conclusion I or II follows
(5) if both conclusion I and II follow
1. Statements: All X are Y. All Y are Z
Conclusions: (I) All Z are X. Some X are not Z.
2. Statements: Ram is big. No big is tall. All tall persons are fair.
Conclusions: (I) Ram is tall. (II) Ram is fair. (III) Some fairs are not big.
(1) Only I follows
(2) only III follows
(3) Only II follows
(4) Only II and III follow
(5) None follows
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