Table of Contents
Kerala Public Service Commission will be recruiting eligible candidates for the post of Sanitary Chemist posts under the Kerala Water Authority ,Category number 127/2023 aim to fill the 04 vacant posts. An official notification regarding this was released by the Commission on July 17,2023. Eligible candidates will be selected through Written exams along with Interviews. The Post is open under the age of 36. Visit the official page of Kerala Public Service Commission (KPSC) for more details.
As the recruitment notifications are released, all candidates have to take their preparations seriously and follow a strict study method for high scores in the exam. The Sanitary Chemist preparation is done best when you make a topic-intensive study plan. There will be a tough competition as the number of vacancies are less. So, select effective study materials for the preparation. Before the preparation starts, the candidates must be on hold of sufficient study materials and must have an idea about the best study materials that are available.
Kerala PSC Sanitary Chemist Study Plan 2023
As the date of exam notifications are released, all candidates have to take their preparations seriously and follow a strict study method for high scores in the exam. There will be a tough competition as the number of vacancies are less. So, select effective study materials for the preparation.
Planning out a timetable for your preparations is the first step to scoring high marks. Put your own effort into creating one or else you can follow the below-given study plans. It all depends on you. Try not to pressurize yourself. Take short notes as you go through the topics. Understand which are the topic that carries maximum marks weightage and divide your study schedule accordingly.
Day Wise Table- Study Plan of 30 Days
Main Topics to Cover : KPSC Sanitary Chemist 2023
The syllabus Plays key role in the preparation as well as acquiring effective study materials. In a syllabus, there can be topics that are very important because the questions from those topics appear frequently in the exams. Therefore, it is necessary to refer to the previous year’s questions to find the main topics. The main topics that the candidates should not miss under any circumstance are given below.
Sanitary Chemist Syllabus Main Topics
Some of the main topics in the syllabus of Sanitary Chemist includes in this section,
Atomic structure and chemical bonding
Bohr’s theory, atomic spectrum of hydrogen atom, de Broglie equation, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, Schrödinger’s wave equation, Quantum numbers and their significance, Shapes of s, p, d and f orbitals. Pauli’s Exclusion Principle, Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity, Aufbau’s principle, Variation of orbital energy with atomic number, s, p, d, f block elements and their properties. Shielding effect, Slater rules, variation of effective nuclear charge in periodic table. Ionization enthalpy, factors affecting ionization energy, applications of ionization enthalpy. Electron gain enthalpy, trends of electron gain enthalpy. Electronegativity, Pauling’s/ Mulliken’s and Allred Rachow’s electronegativity scales, hybridization, Inert pair effect, relative stability of different oxidation states, diagonal relationship and anomalous behaviour of first member of each group. Structure, bonding, preparation, properties and uses of boric acid and borates, boron nitrides, borohydrides (diborane), carboranes, silanes, Oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorine, Peroxo acids of sulphur, interhalogen compounds, polyhalide ions, pseudohalogens and basic properties of halogens. Occurrence and uses of noble gases, clathrates; preparation and properties of XeF2, XeF4 and XeF6.
Coordination chemistry, metallurgy, and bioinorganic chemistry
Werner’s theory, IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds, isomerism in coordination compounds. Stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers. Chelate effect, valence bond theory (inner and outer orbital complexes), back bonding. Crystal field theory, CFSE in weak and strong fields, pairing energies, factors affecting the magnitude of 10 Dq (Δo, Δt). Octahedral vs. tetrahedral coordination, tetragonal distortions from octahedral geometry Jahn-Teller theorem, square planar geometry. Qualitative aspect of Ligand field and MO Theory. Substitution reactions in square planar complexes, Trans- effect, mechanism of nucleophilic substitution in square planar complexes, Thermodynamic and Kinetic stability, Kinetics of octahedral substitution, Ligand field effects and reaction rates, Mechanism of substitution in octahedral complexes.
Chief modes of occurrence of metals, electrolytic Reduction, hydrometallurgy, methods of purification of metals: Electrolytic, Kroll process, van Arkel and Mond’s process, Zone refining. Metal ions present in biological systems, classification of elements according to their action in biological system. Sodium / K-pump, carbonic anhydrase and carboxypeptidase. Excess and deficiency of some trace metals. Toxicity of metal ions (Hg, Pb, Cd and As), reasons for toxicity, Use of chelating agents in medicine. Iron and its application in bio-systems, Haemoglobin; Storage and transfer of iron.
Classification of organometallic compounds on the basis of bond type. Concept of hapticity of organic ligands. Metal carbonyls: 18 electron rule, electron count of mononuclear, polynuclear and substituted metal carbonyls of 3d series. General methods of preparation (direct combination, reductive carbonylation, thermal and photochemical decomposition) of mono and binuclear carbonyls of 3d series. Structures of mononuclear and binuclear carbonyls of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni using VBT. acceptor behaviour of CO, synergic effect and use of IR data to explain extent of back bonding. Zeise’s salt: Preparation and structure. Metal Alkyls: Important structural features of methyl lithium (tetramer) and trialkyl aluminium (dimer), concept of multicentre bonding in these compounds. Role of triethylaluminium in polymerisation of ethene (Ziegler – Natta Catalyst). Ferrocene: Preparation and reactions (acetylation, alkylation, metallation, Mannich Condensation). Structure and aromaticity. Comparison of aromaticity and reactivity with that of benzene. Mechanism of Alkene hydrogenation (Wilkinsons
Catalyst), Hydroformylation (Co salts), Wacker Process, Synthetic gasoline (Fischer Tropsch reaction).
Qualitative and quantitative aspects of analysis
- Sampling, evaluation of analytical data, errors
- Accuracy and precision, methods of their expression
- Statistical test of data; F, Q, and t-test Basic principles involved in the analysis of cations and anions and solubility products, common ion effect.
- Principles involved in the separation of cations into groups and the choice of group reagents. Interfering anions (fluoride, borate, oxalate, and phosphate) need to remove after Group II.
- Flame Atomic Absorption and Emission Spectrometry: Basic principles, Techniques of atomization and sample introduction; sources of chemical interferences and their method of removal.
- Techniques for the quantitative estimation of trace level of metal ions from samples.
- Classification of electroanalytical methods, a basic principle of ph metric, potentiometric and conductometric titrations.
- Techniques used for the determination of pka values.
- Theory of thermogravimetry (TG), Techniques for quantitative estimation of Ca and Mg from their mixture. Complexometric titration: EDTA titration.
Organic reaction mechanism and stereochemistry
- Classification and nomenclature of organic compounds,
- Hybridization, Inductive, electromeric, resonance, and mesomeric effects, hyperconjugation, and their applications.
- Organic acids and bases; their relative strength. Homolytic and heterolytic fission, electrophiles and nucleophiles
- Types, shape, and their relative stability of carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, and carbenes. Introduction to types of organic reactions and their mechanism
- Addition, Elimination, and Substitution reactions
- Fischer Projection, Newmann and Sawhorse Projection formulae and their interconversions;
- Geometrical isomerism: cis-trans and, syn-anti isomerism E/Z notations with C.I.P rules. Optical Isomerism: Optical Activity
- Specific Rotation, Chirality/Asymmetry, Enantiomers, Molecules with two or more chiral centers, Distereoisomers, mesostructures,
- Racemic mixture and resolution
- Relative and absolute configuration: D/L and R/S designations.
- Applications of IR, UV, and NMR for identification of simple organic molecules.
Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons
- Formation of alkanes,
- Wurtz Reaction, Wurtz-Fittig Reactions,
- Free radical substitutions: Halogenation-relative reactivity and selectivity
- Formation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions
- Mechanism of E1, E2, e1cb reactions. Saytzeff and Hofmann eliminations
- Reactions of alkenes: Electrophilic additions their mechanisms (Markownikoff/ Anti Markownikoff addition),
- Mechanism of oxymercuration-demarcation,
- Hydroboration-oxidation, ozonolysis, reduction (catalytic and chemical),
- Syn and anti-hydroxylation (oxidation), 1,2 and 1,4-addition reactions in conjugated dienes,
- Diels-Alder reaction;
- Allylic and benzylic bromination and mechanism,
- Reactions of alkynes: Acidity, Electrophilic, and Nucleophilic additions.
- Hydration to form carbonyl compounds,
- Alkylation of terminal alkynes.
- Types of cycloalkanes and their relative stability,
- Baeyer strain theory, Conformation analysis of alkanes and cyclohexane.
- Aromaticity: Hückel’s rule, aromatic character of arenes,
- Cyclic carbocations/carbanions, and heterocyclic compounds with suitable examples.
- Electrophilic aromatic substitution: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, and Friedel-Craft’s alkylation/acylation with their mechanism.
- Directing effects of the groups.
- Preparation and reactions of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene
Halogenated hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds
Alkyl halides: Methods of preparation, nucleophilic substitution reactions – SN1, SN2 and SNi mechanisms with stereochemical aspects and effect of solvent etc.; nucleophilic substitution vs. elimination.
Aryl halides: Methods of reparation, nucleophilic aromatic substitution; SNAr, Benzyne mechanism. Relative reactivity of alkyl, allyl/benzyl, vinyl and aryl halides towards nucleophilic substitution reactions. Organometallic compounds of Mg and Li – use in synthesis of organic compounds. Classification and nomenclature, Structure, aromaticity in 5-numbered and 6-membered rings containing one heteroatom; Synthesis, reactions and mechanism of substitution reactions of: Furan, Pyrrole (Paal-Knorr synthesis, Knorr pyrrole synthesis, Hantzsch synthesis), Thiophene, Pyridine (Hantzsch synthesis), Pyrimidine, Skraup synthesis, Friedlander’s synthesis, Knorr quinoline synthesis, Bischler-Napieralski reaction Derivatives of furan: Furfural and furoic acid.
Carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acids, and their derivatives
- Structure, reactivity, and preparation of carbonyl compounds
- Nucleophilic additions
- Nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions with ammonia derivatives
- Mechanisms of Aldol and Benzoin condensation
- Knoevenagel condensation, Claisan-Schmidt, Perkin, Cannizzaro and Wittig reaction
- Beckmann and Benzil-Benzilic acid rearrangements
- Haloform reaction and Baeyer Villiger oxidation, α- substitution reactions
- Oxidations and reductions (Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, lialh4, nabh4, MPV)
- Michael addition
Gaseous, liquid, and solid states
- Kinetic gas equation, collision frequency
- collision diameter, mean free path, and viscosity of gases
- relation between mean free path and coefficient of viscosity
- variation of viscosity with temperature and pressure
- maxwell distribution and its use in evaluating molecular velocities (average, root mean square, and most probable)
- Law of equipartition of energy
- degrees of freedom and molecular basis of heat capacities
- The behavior of real gases: deviations from ideal gas behavior
- compressibility factor, z, and its variation with pressure for different gases
- van der waals equation of state
- virial equation of state
- Glasses and liquid crystals
Ionic and chemical equilibria, phase equilibria
- Degree of ionization
- Factors affecting the degree of ionization
- Ionization constant and ionic product of water
- Ionization of weak acids and bases
- Ph scale, common ion effect, dissociation constants of mono-, di-and tricrotic acids
- Salt hydrolysis-calculation of hydrolysis constant
- Degree of hydrolysis and ph for different salts
- Buffer solutions, Henderson equation, and its applications
- Intensive and extensive variables
- State and path functions; isolated, closed, and open systems
- Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Concept of heat (q), work(w), internal energy (U), and statement of the first law, enthalpy (H)
- Relation between heat capacities
- Calculations of q, w, U, and H for reversible
- Irreversible and free expansion of gases (ideal and van der Waals) under isothermal and adiabatic conditions
- Variation of S, G, A with T, V, P
- Free energy change and spontaneity
Chemical kinetics, surface chemistry, and catalysis
- Order and molecularity of a reaction
- Rate laws in terms of the advancement of a reaction
- Differential and integrated form of rate expressions up to second-order reactions
- Experimental methods of the determination of rate laws
- Kinetics of complex reactions
- Chain reactions
- Effect of particle size and efficiency of nanoparticles as catalysts
- Enzyme catalysis, Michaelis-Menten mechanism, acid-base catalysis
- Molar conductivity at infinite dilution
- kohlrausch law of independent migration of ions
- debye-hückel-onsager equation
- Wien effect, debye-falkenhagen effect,
- Walden’s rules
- Ionic velocities
- mobilities and their determinations
- Transference numbers and their relation to ionic mobilities
- Determination of transference numbers using hittorf and moving boundary methods)
- Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with molecules and various types of spectra
- Born Oppenheimer approximation
- Rotation spectroscopy
- Selection rules, intensities of spectral lines
- Determination of bond lengths of diatomic and linear triatomic molecules
- Isotopic substitution Vibrational spectroscopy
- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy: Principles of NMR spectroscopy
- Larmor precession
- Chemical shift and low-resolution spectra
Sample Questions and Answers
Q.1 The emissions of an α particle and two β particles in succession produce an ………………of the starting atom.
(a) Isotope (b) Isobar (c) Isotone (d) Isomer
Ans: (a) Isotope
Q.2 The order of the C₂V point group is:
(a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 1 (d) 2
Ans: (b) 4
Q.3 Among CO, NO, HCl and CO₂, that which will not yield a microwave spectrum is:
(a) CO (b) NO (c) HCl (d) CO₂
Ans: (d) CO₂
Q.4 The number of the normal mode of vibration of C6H6 molecule is (a) 30 (b) 36 (c) 31 (d) 35
Ans: (a) 30
Q.5 The π donor ligand in Ziese’s salt is
(a) Chlorine (b) Ethylene (c) Acetylene (d) Carbonyl
Ans: (b) Ethylene
Q.6 The number of signals exhibited by the protons of TMS in its NMR Spectrum is:
(a) 2 (b) 1 (c) 3 (d) 4
Ans: (b) 1
Q.7 Which among the following is the optical property of colloid?
(a) Brownian Movement (b) Electrophoresis (c) Tyndal Effect (d) Electro Osmosis
Ans: (b) Electrophoresis
Q.8 How many isoprene units are present in monoterpenes?
(a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 2 (d) 1
Ans: (c) 2
Q.9 Radioactive disintegration follows …………… order kinetics.
(a) First Order (b) Second Order (c) Third Order (d) Fourth Order
Ans: (a) First Order
Q.10 The emission of radiant energy after a time lag after its absorption by a substance is called:
(a) Fluorescence (b) Phosphorescence (c) Vibrational Relaxation (d) Inter System Crossing
Ans: (b) Phosphorescence